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QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN: AN INTRODUCTION. By Lizzette Rojas, PhD and Flordeliz Serpa , PhD Non-Profit Evaluation & Resource Center, Inc. (NPERCI). Lizzette Rojas, PhD.

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questionnaire design an introduction


By Lizzette Rojas, PhD

and FlordelizSerpa, PhD

Non-Profit Evaluation & Resource Center, Inc. (NPERCI)

lizzette rojas phd

Lizzette Rojas, PhD

Dr. Rojas has over seventeen years of experience in the area of evaluation research of health, education, and social services programs. She is the Chief Operating Officer of Non-Profit Evaluation & Resource Center, Inc.

flordeliz serpa phd

FlordelizSerpa, PhD

Dr. Serpa is an accomplished researcher and program evaluator. She has applied her skills to organizations in both the public and private sectors. Dr. Serpa is the Chief Executive Officer of Non-Profit Evaluation & Resource Center, Inc.

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • To understand a questionnaire’s cultural, psychological, economic, and political context
  • Learn how to ask valid questions and how to ask them correctly
what is a questionnaire
What Is A Questionnaire?

A tool for collecting information to describe, compare, or explain an event or situation, as well as, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and/or sociodemographic characteristics on a particular target group.

questionnaire general format
Questionnaire General Format
  • Self-administered (by mail or personal contact)
  • In person (face-to-face)
  • Telephone interviews
the questions or items
The Questions or Items
  • Are the focus on any survey or questionnaire
  • It is crucial to know how to ask the questions in written and spoken form
  • The way you ask the questions determines the answers
questions context
Questions Context
  • Identify the questionnaire’s specific purpose(s)
  • Clarify the terms used to state the questionnaire’s purpose(s)
  • Be sure to have the specific objectives of the questionnaire
  • Know the respondents
questions context9
Questions Context
  • Standardize the interviewer
  • Standardize the response format
  • Ask questions in a social, cultural, and economic context
  • Keep confidentiality and voluntary participation
  • Include a letter of introduction or presentation
questions format
Questions Format
  • Open questions - more information but difficult to codify, enter, and analyze
  • Closed questions - less information but easy to codify, enter, and analyze
choices and measurement of responses
Choices And Measurement Of Responses
  • Nominal or categorical choices
  • Ordinal
  • Numerical
how to obtain valid information
How To ObtainValid Information
  • Ask purposeful questions
  • Ask concrete questions
  • Use time periods based on importance of the questions
  • Use conventional language
how to obtain valid information13
How To ObtainValid Information
  • Use complete sentences
  • Avoid abbreviations
  • Review questions with experts and potential respondents
  • Use shorter questions
how to obtain valid information14
How To ObtainValid Information
  • Avoid two-edged questions
  • Avoid negative questions
  • Adopt/adapt questions used successfully in other questionnaires
suggested readings
Suggested Readings
  • How to Conduct Surveys by Fink and Kosecoff, Sage Publications, 1998
  • Survey Research by Roger Sapsford, Sage Publications, 1999