Biotechnology. Done By: Wei Li (3), Channe (6), Hang Bin (14), Anders (19). What is Biotechnology?. The use of biological systems, processes and organisms to manufacture useful and improved products and provide services that has benefits and advantages.
Biotechnology Done By: Wei Li (3), Channe (6), Hang Bin (14), Anders (19)
What is Biotechnology? • The use of biological systems, processes and organisms to manufacture useful and improved products and provide services that has benefits and advantages.
How biotechnology benefits man and the society • Biotechnology can be used for many purposes to benefit man and the society • It has made an impact on many areas such as • Medicine • Our Environment • Food • Clothing
1. Medicine • In medicine, modern biotechnology is applied to • Biopharmaceutical production • production of biological drugs through biotechnological means • Pharmacogenomics • the technology that analyses how genetic makeup affects an individual's response to drugs • Genetic Testing • identifies changes in chromosomes, genes or proteins • can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder • Gene Therapy • an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease
2. Environment The International Society for Environmental Biotechnology defines environmental biotechnology as "the development, use and regulation of biological systems for remediation of contaminated environments (land, air, water), and for environment-friendly processes (green manufacturing technologies and sustainable development)".
3. Food • In food, biotechnology is applied to: • Fermentation • the process in which micro-organisms convert sugars to other products. • Has been used to produce wine, beer and bread involves fermentation by yeast. • Production of cheese and yoghurt involve the fermentation of milk by bacteria. (e.g. lactobactilli and bifidobacteria) Extra Information: When yeast ferments sugar in the bread dough, carbon dioxide is produced and forms gas bubbles in the dough.The gas bubbles expand and cause the dough to rise when the dough is baked.
3. Food • Recombinant DNA technology • Allows farmers or other food producers to produce foods with desirable characteristics • Some characteristics of the genetically modified crops allow them to be more resistant to diseases, drought and pests, and are able to provide higher yields, higher nutritional value and better tastes. • Has been used to change a plant's trait in its native plant system e.g. a tomato to tomato transfer can control the softening and ripening of the fruit • The identification of pathogens, pesticides as well as anti-nutritional factors present in the food
4. Clothing • Currently, clothiers are developing biodegradable fabrics from natural fibers that have their start as genetically engineered crops • Of course, cotton is still the most popular natural fibre. However, the uniform you are wearing now may be at least partly made from genetically engineered crops!
Positive Effects of Biotechnology on the Environment • Overall, biotechnology is a key element in sustainable agriculture: Crops developed with biotechnology will have many positive impacts on the environment • Reduced pesticide use • Improved water and soil conservation • Greater safety for workers and the ecosystem • Future products developed through biotechnology will provide important consumer benefits • Enhanced flavor and freshness • Enhanced nutritional value • Reduced saturated fat content
Positive Effects of Biotechnology on the Environment - Cont. • For developing countries, biotechnology can increase crop yields • Helps to address food shortages and hunger • In time, biotechnology may produce • Biodegradable packaging • Alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals • Healthier food products
Negative Effects of Biotechnology on the Environment • Biotechnology potentially threatens biodiversity by introducing a genetically modified organism across a large area • Wind, birds and insects often distribute genetically modified seeds into surrounding areas and contaminate non-genetically modified crops • As animals and insects feed on crops, agricultural biotechnology can severely harm the health of important species. E.g. the monarch butterfly -- is dying in epidemic numbers as a result of exposure to the toxins in genetically modified crops
Why man should bear responsibility towards the environment from which he draws his resources • Not all resources that man takes from the environment is renewable. (eg.fossil fuels, coal) The sources of energy are also useful and precious to us. • Man is highly dependent on the environment for resources such as wood and if it is not used in moderation, it will deplete quickly and will be eventually used up. It also takes a long time for these resources to replenish. • Experiencing natural environments can help one tackle obesity, psychological problems and heart diseases. Thus, preserving the environment from would also benefit us.
Is technology good or badin itself • Advantage: Technology can help species of endangered animals survive and thrive, making there less chances for animal extinction • Disadvantage: However, most of of it relies on natural resources, some of them are non-renewable such as wood used to make devices. It may not be environmentally friendly. • Advantage: Companies can use technology to produce items that are made of materials that are biodegradable and recyclable which will not harm the environment a lot. This means that technology can allow humans to go green and produce things that are environmentally friendly. • Disadvantage: People may also use technology to harm the environment, such as using machines for deforestation and many other harmful functions.
References • http://www.europabio.org/what-biotechnology • http://www.academia.edu/1740868/Biotechnology_Applications_in_Medicine • http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/genetictesting • http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/therapy/genetherapy • http://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biot/what/index_new.shtml • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/16/AR2006071600668.html • http://www.biotechnologyforums.com/thread-1692.html • http://www.ehow.com/info_8188853_biotechnology-negative-effects-environment.html • http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/enjoying/linkingpeople/health/default.aspx
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