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Chapter 4 . “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.” - John Muir. The Organization of Life. 4.1 Do Now. Ecosystems. Communities of organisms and their abiotic environment. Examples: oak forest or coral reef.

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Chapter 4

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

“When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.”

- John Muir

The Organization of Life

  • Communities of organisms and their abiotic environment.
    • Examples: oak forest or coral reef.
  • No clear boundaries.
  • Things move from one ecosystem to another.
    • Pollen can blow from a forest into a field,
    • soil can wash from a mountain into a lake,
    • birds migrate from state to state.
components of an ecosystem
Components of an Ecosystem
  • Energy (sun)
  • Mineral nutrients
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Water
  • Oxygen
  • Living Systems
  • One change can disrupt the entire ecosystem
biotic and abiotic factors
Biotic and Abiotic Factors



environmental factors that are not associated with the activities of living organisms

air, water, rocks, and temperature.

  • environmental factors that are associated with or results from the activities of living organisms
    • plants, animals, dead organisms, and the waste products of organisms.
levels of organization1
Levels of Organization
  • Biosphere
    • Area of the Earth where there is life
  • Ecosystem
    • All of the living and non-living things in an area
  • Community
    • All of the living things in an area
  • Population
    • All of the living things of one species in one area
    • Species: group of organisms that can reproduce together
  • Organism
    • An individual
  • Habitat: place where an organism usually lives.
  • Has specific characteristics that the organisms that live there need to survive.
    • If any of these factors change, the habitat changes.
  • Organisms tend to be very well suited to their natural habitats
  • Niche: an organism’s role in the ecosystem
    • food it eats, what eats it, where it lives
do now
Do Now
  • Check the gradesheet being passed around
  • Compare your grade with and without the test and decide which quarter you want it for
  • Turn in your written section- if you don’t turn it in it’s a zero (counts for quarter 2)
do now1
Do Now
  • Just think about it…
  • If you could have one super adaptation, what would it be?
charles darwin
Charles Darwin
  • Observed that organisms in a population differ slightly from each other in form, function, and behavior.
    • Some of these differences are hereditary.
  • Proposed that the environment exerts a strong influence over which individuals survive to produce offspring, and that some individuals, because of certain traits, are more likely to survive and reproduce than other individuals.
evolution by natural selection
Evolution by Natural Selection
  • Natural selection: process by which individuals that have favorable variations and are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do.
  • Evolution: is a change in the characteristics of a population from one generation to the next.
evolution by natural evolution
Evolution by Natural Evolution

All of the following must occur in order for Natural Selection to take place

nature selects
Nature Selects
  • Adaptation: an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral change that improves a population’s ability to survive.
do now2
Do Now
  • How did THIS happen?
  • Coevolution: The process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with each other
    • Example: Hawaiian honeycreeper
evolution by artificial selection
Evolution by Artificial Selection
  • Artificial selection: selective breeding of organisms, by humans, for specific desirable characteristics.
    • Dogs
    • Fruits, grains,

and vegetables

    • Livestock
evolution of resistance
Evolution of Resistance
  • Resistance: the ability of an organism to tolerate a chemical or disease-causing agent.
  • An organism may be resistant to a chemical when it contains a gene that allows it to break down a chemical into harmless substances.
    • Pesticides
    • Antibiotics
  • Begin writing descriptions of adaptations, environment, and natural selection
  • Project will be presented on Tuesday
the diversity of living things
The Diversity of Living Things
  • Classified into 3 Domains with 6 Kingdoms
the kingdoms of life
The Kingdoms of Life

Domain Archaea

Domain Eubacteria

Domain Eukarya