20c China: From Republic to Communist Power
The Boxer Uprising in 1900 • Peasants in Northern China • support from high officials of Qing court • destruction of anything foreign • siege of the legation quarter in Beijing
Formation of the Chinese Republic • The Qing Dynasty had been in power since 1644 • The people of China, under nationalist leader Sun Yixian, demanded: • “Nationalism” The end of foreign domination & influence • “Democracy” Formation of a representative government • “People’s Livelihood” A modernized & industrialized economy to provide security for the people of China
8-nation forces invaded Beijing • Harsh settlement • station troops in Beijing • huge indemnity • Russian troops in Manchuria • until 1905
Fall of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty • Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) • De facto Chinese monarch (1861-1908) • “Make me unhappy for a day and I will make you unhappy for a lifetime.” • Conservative and anti-foreign • Blamed by many Chinese for foreign imperialist power in China
Fall of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty • Emperor Puyi – the “Last Emperor” • Lived 1906-1967 • Ruled China 1908-1912, and as a puppet for 12 days in 1917 • Puppet emperor of Manchukuo (Japanese-ruled Manchuria), 1932-1945 • Spent ten years in a Soviet prison after WWII • Lived a quiet life as a regular citizen in communist China • Died of disease during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
The Rise of Nationalists and Sun Yat-Sen Revolution of 1911
Radicalization of politics status quo modern monarchy Qing court Reformers Peasants Revolutionaries republic pre-1841 China Marxism? nationalism?
The Revolution of 1911 • 1911-10-10, Wuchang Uprising • Qing dynasty was overthrown • 1912-01-01, China became a republic
Republican Revolution (1912) • Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian) • Founded Kuomintang (KMT) – Nationalist party • Overthrew Manchu (Qing) dynasty • Established a republic • President of Chinese Republic who succeeded him – Yuan Shih-k’ai Kuomintang symbol
Formation of the Chinese Republic • Sun Yixian (Yatsen) • Leader of the Kuomintang • Kuomintang China’s Nationalist Party • Overthrows Qing Emperor in 1911 and becomes China’s first president, but… • “The Chinese people…do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have four hundred million people gathered together in China…they are just a heap of loose sand.” • Sun could not unite China • Turns over presidency to a top general who overturns democratic reforms • China becomes a military dictatorship overrun by warlords
Three Principles of the People • Book published by Sun Yat-Sen before his death in 1925 • Principle of Mínquán • Democracy – the people are sovereign • Principle of Mínzú • Nationalism – an end to foreign imperialism • Principle of Mínshēng • Livelihood – economic development, industrialization, land reform, and social welfare – elements of progressivism and socialism
China after 1911 • The Revolution of 1911 was intended to create a modern republican form of government in China. • Instead, the country broke up into warlord-dominated regions with increasing poverty and violence. • The Kuomintang (Nationalist) Party led the revolution, but controlled few areas.
Dr. Sun Yixian (1866 – 1925) (Dr. Sun Yat-sen)
Kuomintang Party • Sun Yat-sen was the main leader of the 1911 Revolution and the Nationalist Party (KMT). • He died in 1925 and was succeeded as leader by Chiang Kai-shek. • Chiang cooperated with the Communists for a time, but then massacred them in 1927.
Republic of China: Weaknesses • Disunity • Local warlords fought Kuomintang for control • Wars raged between 1912 and 1928 • Foreign imperialists • Americans, Europeans, and Japanese • Poor transportation • 1914 – only 6,000 miles of railroad track • 225,000 miles in the smaller United States • Few decent roads
The Warlords Li Yuanbong Zhang Zuolin Yan Xishan Feng Yuxiang They fought for control of Beijing, to be recognised as the official government of China . The effects were disastrous, particularly on the peasants who were raped and pillaged and forced to pay taxes up to 30 years in advance, for their “protection and safety”.
Chinese Warlords, 1920s Yuan Shi-kai
Foreign Imperialists • Twenty-One Demands (1915) • Japan attempted to make China a Japanese protectorate • Action condemned and stopped by other leading world powers • World War I and the Treaty of Versailles • China attempted to abolish concessions and extraterritoriality • Attempt failed • China did not sign the Treaty of Versailles • Japan gained mandate over most of Germany’s Asian possessions and rights
World War I (1914-18) • Beijing government • joined the Allied forces • sent laborers to Europe
World War I & The Treaty of Versailles • In 1917, China declares war on Germany • China believed by fighting for the allies that at the end of the war, territories controlled by Germany would be returned to the people of China • Treaty of Versailles gave Japan the former German territory
World War I (1914-18) • Japan drove German forces out of Qingdao • Paris Peace Conference in 1919
Treaty of Versailles (1919) • All German privileges in China’s Shandong Peninsula were “transferred” to Japan
On May 4, 1919 over 3,000 angry Chinese students gathered in Beijing to protest the Treaty of Versailles Demonstrations spread to other cities throughout China Sun Yixian believes he can regain power, but… May Fourth Movement
Spread of the movement • Boycott Japanese products • demand release of arrested students • workers and merchants joined in • Shanghai, Nanjing, etc. • Paris, California, etc.
Growth of Communism • Sun Yat-Sen appealed for Russian (Soviet) aid following the Versailles Conference • 1921-1925 – China received advisors, arms, communist propaganda, and loans • Russia revoked its imperialist rights in China Chinese flag, 1912-1928
Nationalist Revolution • Sun Yat-Sen succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek • Communists expelled by Kuomintang • 1926-1928 – war to control the warlords • Capital moved from Peiping (a.k.a. Peking, today’s Beijing) to Nanking (Nanjing) Presidential Palace under Kuomintang Government in Nanjing
Chiang Kai Shek His brother in law and leader of the new army Chiang Kai Shek quickly took command and established himself as leader moving against the War Lords in the successful Great Northern Expedition.
The Nationalist Party - The NationalistRepublic of China was led by Jiang Jieshi after the death of Sun Yet-sen . They improved transportation, provided a better education to more people, and encouraged industry. - However, peasants and workers lives were not improved…
Jiang Jieshi Becomes President of Nationalist China, 1928 (Chiang Kai-shek)
After Sun Yixian’s death in 1925, Jiang Jieshi becomes the head of the Kuomintang Jiang Feared communism Supported by bankers and businessmen Over saw a corrupt government Jiang Jieshi & the Nationalists
Frustrated nationalism • China’s previous efforts to borrow from the West to achieve wealth and power all failed • military hardware and related technologies • economic institutions and organization • science, scholarship, and education • government, political processes and organizations
Frustrated nationalism • China became weaker and poorer • continuous civil wars between warlords • Western privileges in China • humiliated and abused in the world
Radical urban intellectuals • multiplication of ism’s
The Kuomintang (KMT) is Split • Right wing • Business people • Politicians • Left wing • Communists • Intellectuals • Radicals • Students
New political parties • Nationalist Party (GMD) was established • Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925 • Chiang Kai-Shek was the military leader • Communist Party was established in 1921 • Mao ZeDong was one of its founding members
The Communist Party in China • Many intellectual Chinese turned against Western Democracy (as you might imagine they would considering how the democracies treated China • Communist Party • Lead by former university asst. librarian Mao Zedong • Influence by the Russian Revolutions of 1917
Student of Marxism However, he believed the communist revolutions would not begin with urban factory workers, but with RURAL PEASANTS “The force of the peasantry is like that of the raging winds and driving rain. It is rapidly increasing in violence. No force can stand in its way. The peasantry will tear apart all nets which bind it…They will bury beneath them all forces of imperialism, militarism, corrupt officialdom, village bosses and evil gentry.” Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong As a Young Revolutionary (Mao Tse-tung)
Mao Zedong’s Life • Mao was born in 1896 as the son of an affluent peasant in Hunan province. • After service in a provincial army in the 1911 revolution, Mao attended a teacher’s college. • He then attended Beijing University and worked in the library there.