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COMMUNIST CHINA. What do you remember???. When a stronger nation dominates a weaker nation it is called… What product did Britain sell to the Chinese in large quantities? What was the policy forced upon China to open itself to merchants from all nations?

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What do you remember
What do you remember???

When a stronger nation dominates a weaker nation it is called…

What product did Britain sell to the Chinese in large quantities?

What was the policy forced upon China to open itself to merchants from all nations?

What was the rebellion in China to kick out all foreigners?

China achieves independence sun yat sen the kuomintang
China Achieves Independence!Sun-Yat Sen & the Kuomintang

1911: overthrew the Qing Dynasty (ruled for over 250 yrs) & achieve independence for China

Kuomintang=The Nationalist Party

Sun-Yat Sen

leader of Kuomintang


3 Principles:

1. Freedom from imperialism (nationalism)

2. Democratic government (constitution, people’s rights)

3. Healthy economy to provide for the people

May fourth movement
May Fourth Movement

Sun-Yat Sen loses power & country erupts into civil war

Warlords take over country

May Fourth Movement (1919)

Demonstrations throughout China that showed the Chinese people’s commitment to building a modern, strong nation

Many young people turn to communism to achieve this

Communists vs nationalists
Communists vs. Nationalists

Lenin sends advisors to China

Sun-Yat Sen dies, Chiang Kai-shek is now leader of Kuomintang (Nationalists)

fears communism (business family)

Loses support of many b/c gov’t becomes less democratic, corrupt, & does little to help the people

Mao Zedong, leader of Communists, gains support of the peasants

Communists & Nationalists fight warlords together but then the Nationalists began killing Communists

Kill most of the Communists in China…But not all

Civil war
Civil War

1930-1949 Communists vs. Nationalists in Civil War (unite during WWII)

Mao brings fighting to the countryside (peasants on side of communists)

Guerilla warfare

Nationalists driven out again and again

The Long March

700,000 Nationalists surrounds Communists

Communists face certain defeat & 100,000 flee

6,000 mile journey known as the Long March

Nationalists chases them, Communists stay only a step ahead for 2 yrs

Thousands die!!!

See map p.451

Civil war ends
Civil War Ends

Japan invades China, Communists & Nationalists unite to fight Japanese

Civil War resumes after WWII

Communists (Red Army) win support of the people & win in 1949

People’s Republic of China

Nationalists flee to Taiwan

World Reaction:

US helps Nationalists set up gov’t in Taiwan, wants to make sure communism doesn’t spread

Soviet Union: thrilled! Sign friendship treaty w/ China & send them financial & military aid

People s republic of china
People’s Republic of China

Mao & new communist gov’t make promises and many changes

Great Leap Forward (1958)

Purpose: Modernize china’s economy by dividing land into…

Communes—large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people

Very ineffective, poorly planned (no desire to work hard since owned nothing)

20-40 million died!!!

The cultural revolution
The Cultural Revolution

Mao encouraged young people to initiate revolution

Red Guards—militia units to enforce strict communism (mostly teenagers)

Cultural Revolution (1966)

Goal: to create an equal society of peasants and workers by “purging” China of intellectuals, capitalists, and others

Led by the Red Guards who imprison, torture, murder civilians

Close schools & destroy art, etc.

Doesn’t end until Mao’s death 1976

Tiananmen square massacre
Tiananmen Square Massacre

After Mao died, China began to open & reform

Tiananmen Square (1989)

Begins with thousands of students protesting for democratic reform

Over a million Chinese join during the 6 week protest

The gov’t sends in troops & tanks

Thousands of protestors are killed or injured!!!

China is criticized today for its human rights abuses (Tibet, executions…)