Indian Tribes1492 Prior to European contact
Adams 1797–1800 1800
LOUISIANA PURCHASE France 1800 (1) Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had a vision of a renewed western empire for France (2) Halt the westward expansion of the young United States (3) Supply French colonies in the West Indies with the goods they needed
1800 secret Treaty of Ildefonso with Spain France would provide Spain with a kingdom for the son-in-law of Spain's king (Tuscany) if Spain would return Louisiana to France / Spain unsuccessful culturally Creoles vs. Hispanic warlords /New Orleans had been a mixed blessing: Spain brought in great wealth from its expensive tariffs, but suffered from dealing with the otherwise troublesome city, which was completely waterlogged, with hordes of mosquitoes and yellow fever. Napoleon's plan collapsed when the twelve-year revolt of slaves and free blacks in the French colony of Haiti/DR succeeded, forcing French troops to return defeated to France and preventing them from reaching their ultimate destination--Louisiana-- Napoleon's New World empire disintegrated, the loss of Haiti made Louisiana unnecessary / war chest
LOUISIANA PURCHASE AMERICA 1803 (1) Acquire the area near New Orleans primarily to guarantee its right to sail vessels down the Mississippi River /unload goods at New Orleans for shipment to the Atlantic coast and Europe / traders and farmers (2) Possess the entire territory of Louisiana because so many American settlers and merchants were already in the region and because of its vital geographic position at the mouth of the Mississippi River (3) The Directory next door neighbors? (4) Talleyrand- “stifle American expansionism and act as a barrier between the United States and Spain.”
Jefferson – Napoleon Deal US takes the lead- The United States discovered the transfer of Louisiana from Spain to France and sent Robert Livingston to France in 1801 to try to purchase New Orleans. Napoleon initially refused, leading President Thomas Jefferson to send James Monroe to secure the deal. RESULTS- Days before Monroe was to arrive in Paris, Napoleon offered to sell the United States not only New Orleans but all of Louisiana RESULTS - The United States purchased Louisiana for $11,250,000 and assumed claims of its own citizens against France up to $3,750,000, for a total purchase price of $15 million.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set out on an amazing expedition across the Louisiana Territory / In May 1804 / 8,ooo miles / 2 ½ years / 45 explorer / Congress fund / Sacagawea
Purpose (1) PERSONAL- Jefferson had long considered the project of a western expedition-discussed it with his private secretary, Capt. Meriwether Lewis. (2) Search out a land route to the Pacific (3) Strengthen American claims to Oregon territory (4) Gather information about the indigenous inhabitants and the country of the Far West.
The Turnpike Era: 1800-1820 • By 1800 there were about 20,000 miles of post roads in the United States. By 1830 almost 12,000 miles had been constructed • These were federally subsidized (the subsidy was not very great) roads used to deliver the mail Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 7 gives Congress the power to establish a Post Office and Post Roads. • 1. These were not high quality roads. Independent local construction companies built and maintained them and they were largely financed by private businesses. • 2. The British blockade of the U.S. coastline Connecticut during the War of 1812 had the effect of highlighting the need for a better internal road network.
In 1806, the federal government decided to build a road. Congress authorized funding of the National Road to provide portage between the Potomac and Ohio Rivers. Stagecoaches carrying passengers and mail could travel 60 to 70 miles a day on the National Road
Canals: 1825 – 1840 • The Erie Canal – The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 dramatically lowered transportation costs and set off a canal building boom. The annual net gain on the Erie Canal over its first decade of operation, 1826 – 1835, was about 8 percent of its total construction cost per year! • The Erie Canal helped make New York City such a large trading center that it accounted for 50 percent of all U.S. foreign trade and duties collected. It touched off a canal building boom in the U.S.
JQ Adams 1825 – 1829 1830 map
End Jackson 1837