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  1. Indian Education Indian Residential Schools “A liberating education nurtures empathy, a commitment to community, and a sense of self-worth and dignity.”1 Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  2. “state policies and actions…have too frequently prevented indigenous peoples from receiving a truly empowering education. This has been achieved in a variety of ways: • passivelyby ignoring or failing to consider the economic, cultural, and linguistic realities of indigenous peoples and • activelyby deliberately minimizing or excluding aspects of their language and culture from educational program design and execution.” 2 “[D]iscriminationin education comes in many forms, including most prominently the denial of mother tongue-medium education for indigenous children.”3 Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  3. “[Indigenous] children usually were kept at boarding school for eight years, during which time they were not permitted to see their parents, relatives or friends. Anything Indian – dress, language, religious practices, even outlook on life . . . was uncompromisingly prohibited. Ostensibly educated . . . in the English language, wearing store-bought clothes and with their hair short and their emotionalism torn down, the boarding-school graduates were sent out either to make their way in a White world that did not want them, or to return to a reservation to which they were now foreign.”4 Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  4. Justifications and Rationale • Doctrine of Discovery 1493 • European nations believed that they had the God given right to assert sovereign claim and jurisdiction over all lands and territories outside Europe • Church • 1537 Papal Bull declaring that Indians were human beings • Identified human rights Indians possessed • While Indians possessed human souls, those souls did not possess the salvation inherent in the knowledge of God or Jesus Christ • Relegated Indians to a position of racial and spiritual inferiority relative to Europe’s peoples • State Authorities viewed Indians as uncivilized • Assumptions of Church & State - salvation and civilization of Indians Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  5. RCAP (1996) Indian Residential SchoolsVol. 1, Chapter 10, • A.J. Miller pp. 309-394 • Canada’s Policy in relation to Indians, Metis, Inuit • Canada adopts assimilation position • Address relationship to Indians • Sec 91(24) of Constitution Act 1867 • Canada’s goal: non-aboriginal, Christian mono-community • Education is the “best method to achieve goal” • 1870-1910 - Period of assimilation where theclear objective of both missionaries and government was to assimilate Aboriginal children into the lower fringes of mainstream society (AFN website) Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  6. Birth of Residential Schools in Canada • Davin Report (1879) tabled in House of Commons • Recommends Industrial (Residential) School model implemented with success in US, photo Carlisle Industrial School • Became policy in Canada Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  7. Indian Education Policy in late 1800s • Implemented IRS in 1892 by contractual arrangement • Four churches • Anglican, Catholic, Methodist, Presbyterian • Radically re-socialize children Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  8. Churches manage and operate • Federal government provides capital and funding • Based on numbers of children in the school • Peak 1931: 80 IRS in operation with 17,000 children enrolled • Most provinces except, PEI, NB, NFLD (not yet a province) • Reports: mismanaged, under-funded, inferior education, known mistreatment, abuse of children Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  9. Link to website Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  10. Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  11. The Vision of IRS • Justify removal of children, family disruption • Develop pedagogy for re-socialization • Integrate graduates into non-Aboriginal world Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  12. Justification: Emancipate Children • Progress • ‘unfit’ parents, separation necessary • Dion-Stout • Dis-establishing communities via assimilation • French speaker • Curriculum web Phil Morin • ½ day religious study, reading, arithmetic sample curriculum • ½ day of work • Field work for boys • Housekeeping for girls Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  13. Goffman’s Total Institutions • Analyzed institutional practices employed to bring about psychosocial effects in target groups • did not study IRS • Homes for the aged, asylums, private boarding schools, monasteries, prisons, concentration camps • ‘walled off’ from world at large • Enforced and maintained an extreme power disparity between inmate population and smaller supervisory staff • “In our society, they are the forcing houses for changing persons; each is a natural experiment of what can be done to the self.” Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  14. Institutional Tactics • The recruit comes into the establishment with a conception of himself • Begins a series of abasements, degradations, humiliations and profanations of self. His self is systematically, if often unintentionally mortified. • Admission procedures • Stripped of his possessions • Replacements made by the establishment • Standard issue, clearly marked, periodic searches, confiscations, property dispossession • Sequential scheduling of the individual’s roles – role dispossession Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  15. IRS Graduates to assimilate through enfranchisement • Provisions of Indian Act, voluntarily • Employment placements in non-aboriginal towns/cities • None were created due to racism/prejudice • Initial policy was aborted 1898 – smart community-based strategy • File Hills Colony experiment 1901 • Too costly, project abandoned • Duncan Campbell Scott – oxen, farm implements, loan and return to reserves upon graduation Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  16. Canadian boarding schools they “represented a ‘system of persistent neglect and debilitating abuse . . . . The schools produced thousands of [indigenous] individuals incapable of leading healthy lives or contributing positively to their communities.”11 The children suffered both cultural and familial dislocation, as well as physical and psychological abuse: “Examples abound from all over the world of indigenous . . . children having experienced serious physical punishment (both in residential and in day schools), lack of food, sexual abuse and so forth…. Many such children who have suffered such education are [also] permanently alienated from both their native language and culture and their families and home communities.”12 Moreover, the harm caused by these educational policies has been intergenerational. For instance, children raised or educated in these schools knew very little of life in a “family” and as parents themselves had no familial or community patterns to follow in rearing their own children. Since the economic and social well-being of an indigenous group often centers around familial or kinship networks, the physical, cultural, and linguistic separation of indigenous children from these networks has contributed substantially to the dire socioeconomic conditions facing some indigenous peoples today. As one indigenous leader described it “the chances of [indigenous] survival are significantly reduced if our children, the only means for the transmission of [our] heritage, are . . . denied exposure to the ways of their People.”5 Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  17. Change of Policy • Residential Schools, obvious failures • Unqualified teaching staff • Beyond grade 8 (100 students) • Beyond grade 12 (none) • Curriculum/pedagogy inappropriate for Indian children Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  18. 1948 Undercurrent of Change • Integration • New method of assimilation • Hoey (1943) educate parents and children together • Less costly, establish school committees • Emphasis on Language Arts - English Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  19. IRS as Supplementary Services • Welfare function for category 3 • ‘children from abusive homes’ • Provincial child welfare agencies cooperate • 1969 Government formally ends contracts with Churches • Blue Quills turned over to local control 1971 • Government continues to fund residences until 1996 Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  20. Education of Inuit Children • Labrador (1791) Moravians taught in Inuktitut • By 1800’s all hymns translated into Inuktitut by 1840, most Intuit were literate • 1949 NFLD joined Confederation • Provided education in English only • Northern Canada, Inuit in Residential School, mandatory schooling by 1950 Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  21. Education of Metis Children • Emphasized religious study in addition to arithmetic • Some attended Residential Schools in the NWT • Sons of affluent Metis received formal education privileges in Eastern Canada and England • In 1936, 90% of Metis children had no schooling Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  22. Raphael Lemkin • Chrisjohn, Chapter 4 • IRS as a genocidal policy vs. the Standard Account • The system was sick vs. the Indians are sick • Lemkin coined the word genocide (1944) "Genocide has two phases: one, destruction of the national pattern of the oppressed group: the other, the imposition of the national pattern of the oppressor." Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  23. Impacts of IRS: Historic Trauma • Loss of family Dion-Stout clip • Abandonment & Alienation • Break down of family system; Parenting roles • Loss of tradition, language, culture • Sub-oppression or Internalized Oppression • Form of self-hate (abuses, p, m, e, s) • Not wanting to see others succeed or do better • lateral violence, passive-aggressive Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  24. Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

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  26. Result: Intergenerational Trauma • According to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996: 379): • “The survivors of the Indian residential school system have, in many cases, continued to have their lives shaped by the experiences in these schools. Persons who attended these schools continue to struggle with their identity after years of being taught to hate themselves and their culture. The residential school led to a disruption in the transference of parenting skills from one generation to the next. Without these skills, many survivors have had difficulty in raising their own children. In residential schools, they learned that adults often exert power and control through abuse. The lessons learned in childhood are often repeated in adulthood with the result that many survivors of the residential school system often inflict abuse on their own children. These children in turn use the same tools on their children ” Monchalin, L. Criminology Faculty: Kwantlen Polytechnic University Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  27. Blue Quills First Nations College 2012 Monchalin, L. Criminology Faculty: Kwantlen Polytechnic University

  28. Aboriginal Peoples Risk Factors Related to Crime Blue Quills First Nations College 2012 Monchalin, L. Criminology Faculty: Kwantlen Polytechnic University

  29. Canada and Church Apologies • United Church (1986 and 1998) • Oblates of Mary Immaculate (1991); Roman Catholic (2009) • Anglican (1993) • Presbyterian (1994) • Statement of Reconciliation (1998) • RCMP (2004) • Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement (2006) • Legal document: Federal government, Churches, FN Organizations • CEP, IAP (physical & sexual abuses), litigation • Prime Minister Harper (2008) 6:45 • Truth and Reconciliation Commission Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  30. Constitutional Act, 1982 • Section 35 (1) and (2) set out the protections of the Aboriginal peoples under Canada’s highest law. • “The existing Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples (Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples) of Canada and hereby recognized and affirmed.” Ka Na Ta Conversations • J.S. Henderson • J.R. Saul • D. Courchene Jr. • O. Mercredie Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  31. References 1. Indigenous Knowledge and Education: Sites of Struggle, Strength, and Survivance, p. 160 (Malia Villegas, Sabina RakNeugebauer & Kerry R. Venegas, eds., Harvard University Press 2008) [hereinafter Indigenous Knowledge and Education]. 2. See generally Jose Martinez Cobo, Study of the problem of discrimination against indigenous populations, Chapter XIII (Education) and Volume V (Conclusions, Proposals and Recommendations), U.N. Commission on Human Rights, 36th Sess., Provisional Agenda Item 11, UN Docs. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1983/21/Add.2 and E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7/Add.4 (June 28, 1983) [hereinafter Martinez Cobo Chapter XIII and Martinez Cobo Volume V]. 3. Conclusions And Recommendations Of The Expert Seminar on Indigenous Peoples and Education, at para. 10. 4. Peter Farb, Man's Rise to Civilization 257-59 (1968), cited in Lorie M. Graham, “The Past Never Vanishes”: A Contextual Critique of the Existing Indian Family Doctrine, 23 Am. Indian L. Rev. 1, 16 (1998/1999) [hereinafter The Past Never Vanishes]. English only language regulations were promulgated and, for a period of time, federal law permitted the withholding of treaty-based government rations to American Indian families who failed to send their children to government-funded or government- run schools. To learn more about the boarding school experiences, see generally Jeffery Hamley, Federal Off- Reservation Boarding Schools for Indians (Oct. 1986) (unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Harvard University) (on file with Gutman Library, Harvard University). Blue Quills First Nations College 2012

  32. References Continued 4. Hearings Before the Subcomm. on Indian Affairs and Public Lands of the House Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs, 95th Cong. 191-92 (1978), quoted in Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians v. Holyfield, 490 U.S. 30, 34-35 (1989), cited in The Past Never Vanishes, at 32. Blue Quills First Nations College 2012