Indian philosophy
1 / 24

INDIAN PHILOSOPHY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

INDIAN PHILOSOPHY. Krishna to Arjuna: Behold my mystic opulence! You are listening to the Bhagavad-Gita chanted by Dayananda Saraswati. Indus Valley Civilization 2500 BCE to 1600 BCE. Indus Valley Civilization. Harappan Images .

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'INDIAN PHILOSOPHY' - Audrey

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Indian philosophy l.jpg

Krishna to Arjuna: Behold my mystic opulence!

You are listening to the Bhagavad-Gita chanted by Dayananda Saraswati

Indus valley civilization 2500 bce to 1600 bce l.jpg
Indus Valley Civilization2500 BCE to 1600 BCE

Indus valley civilization l.jpg
Indus Valley Civilization

Harappan Images

The Harappan civilization in the Indus River Valley reached its peak around 2600 BC,

The vedic age 1500 bce 322 bce l.jpg
The Vedic Age1500 BCE -322 BCE

  • Was there an Aryan invasion?

"Veda" means knowledge, vedic culture means the spiritually aware society “Dharma", is the meaning of life, the way to live the existence on Earth.

We often refer it as "Hinduism", but it is more correct to call it vedic-culture.

The vedic tradition l.jpg
The Vedic Tradition

  • The Vedas are the four primary texts of Hinduism. Rig Veda composed about 1500BCE.

    • Life is given meaning through ritual

    • Recited, chanted, and sung; all creation shares in the wisdom of divine reality

  • The Upanishads, written between 800 and 400 BCE are more philosophical

    • What is the nature of ultimate reality?

    • Who am I in the deepest meaning of my existence?

The vedic tradition6 l.jpg
The Vedic Tradition

  • The Laws of Manu

    • Establishes varna, the class system

      • (Brahmins, characterized by intelligence and excellent speech, priestly

      • Kshatriyas, characterized by strength and courage, kings and warriors

      • Vaishyas, characterized by practical intelligence, merchants

      • Shudras, characterized by lower intelligence, farmers

    • Life stages

      • Student

      • Householder

      • Forest Dweller

      • Seeker of moksha (liberation)

The vedic tradition7 l.jpg
The Vedic Tradition

  • The Epics

    • Mahabharata

    • Ramayana

    • Bhagavad-Gita is part of the Mahabharata

      • It is probably written after the reign of Asoka and the end of the Mauryan Empire

      • An attempt to hold together the tradition, both religious and philosophical, in the context of the challenges raised by Jainism and Buddhism

The bhagavad gita a moral path for all l.jpg
The Bhagavad-Gita a moral path for all

Structure of the gita l.jpg
Structure of the Gita

  • 18 teachings

    • 1-6 are a dramatic narrative that include theoretical and practical teachings on self-knowledge and the nature of action

    • 7-12 the focus shifts towards knowledge of Krishna. Krishna become the object of Arjuna’s devotion (bhakti)

    • 13-18 the battle ground is redefined as the field of interior warfare. Devotion is the path that resolves the conflict between the worldly life of duty and the life of renunciation.

Arjuna s conflict teaching 1 verses 20 47 l.jpg
Arjuna’s ConflictTeaching 1, verses 20-47

  • The Pandavas and the Kauravas

  • A warrior who kills his relative condemns the entire family

  • Arjuna puts down his weapons, slumps into the chariot, tormented by grief

  • Arjuna explores the relationship of the empirical self (gunas) and the ultimate self(atman) in conversation with his friend (and charioteer) Krishna

Helpful vocabulary l.jpg
Helpful Vocabulary

  • Atman—the ultimate self, unchanging and without multiplicity

  • Empirical self—constituted by the gunas, the strands of matter [sattva (lucidity), rajas (passion), and tamas (dark inertia)] that form the basis of all psycho-physical existence. These three intertwine to make the rope that binds humans to nature. This self must be disciplined and brought under control so that the individual can come to higher knowledge, freed from ignorance.

Helpful vocabulary12 l.jpg
Helpful Vocabulary

  • Renunciation of actions or nonattached action—we are bound by our attachments to the different kinds of matter.

    • Those attached to sattva are inclined to intellectual activity.

    • Those attached to rajas are inclined to vigorous action, and

    • those attached to tamas are inclined to devotional activity.

  • Disciplined nonattachment relates to each of these types of attachment. So there is the yoga of knowledge, of work, and of devotion. The goal of each pathway is to achieve independence of the gunas, but this only happens by working through the guna self.

Helpful vocabulary13 l.jpg
Helpful Vocabulary

  • Karma

    • the force of one’s action in determining what one is and will be. A store of actions that binds one to phenomenal existence. One cannot escape action. One can act without concern for consequences and so escape the bondage of action.

    • Action and effect

    • Embodied in matter

    • Adhere to the soul

    • Life circumstances of any individual are an effect of deeds and character in previous lives

      • Samsara—cycle of births

Helpful vocabulary14 l.jpg
Helpful Vocabulary

  • Dharma—sacred duty; from the Sanskrit meaning “that which sustains.” What one should do because it supports the individual and society and is therefore the right thing to do. Dharma is the guide to moral action. Notice that the right thing to do is decided according to categories of social position, kinship, and stage in life. There is a relativity of values and obligations that may be difficult because of our tendency to seek for universal moral principles.

  • Moksha—freedom, liberation. In the Gita, liberation is from the bondage of human action. It is based on detachment and freedom within oneself.

Disciplined nonattachment l.jpg
Disciplined Nonattachment

  • Humans are inclined to intellectual activity, vigorous activity, or devotional activity

  • These are attachments, and each requires a discipline in the action

  • In self-discipline, one works through the guna-self, transcending it

Karma yoga l.jpg

  • Yoga (yoke) is the path to liberation

  • Karma Yoga is doing one’s duty, controlling enjoyment and desire

    • “Always perform with detachment any action you must do; performing action with detachment, one achieves supreme good.” (3.19)

    • Restrain your senses

Jnana yoga and raja yoga l.jpg
Jnana Yoga and Raja Yoga

  • Jnana yoga, the path of practical reasoning

  • Raja yoga, the path of meditation

Bhakti yoga l.jpg

  • Devotion to Vishnu

  • 11.8 The divine eye to see the majesty of the discipline

  • 11.32 I am time grown old, Creating world destruction, Set in motion to annihilate the worlds; Even without you, All these warriors, Arrayed in hostile ranks, Will cease to exist.

  • 11.45-51 Preference for the intimate form and gentle body

  • 11.55 “Acting only for me, intent on me, free from attachment, hostile to no creature, Arjuna, a man of devotion comes to me.”

  • The importance of a concept of personal, intimate, divinity

Interior warfare and self discovery l.jpg
Interior Warfare and Self-Discovery

  • The real enemy is desire.

  • Desire is overcome by discipline.

  • 14.5 “Lucidity, passion, dark inertia—these qualities inherent in nature bind the unchanging embodied self in the body.”

    • Lucidity addicts to joy

    • Passion addicts to action

    • Dark inertia addicts to negligence

  • Must transcend all three

Interior warfare and self discovery20 l.jpg
Interior Warfare and Self-Discovery

  • People of lucidity sacrifice to the gods

  • People of passion sacrifice to spirits and demons

  • People of dark inertia sacrifice to ghosts and corpses

  • All must be transcended

Interior warfare and self discovery21 l.jpg
Interior Warfare and Self-Discovery


  • That is the Real

    • Knowers of infinite spirit

    • Who crave freedom

    • What is real and good

Interior warfare and self discovery22 l.jpg
Interior Warfare and Self-Discovery

  • 18.8 But if one performs prescribed action because it must be done, relinquishing attachment and the fruit, his relinquishment is a lucid act.

Interior warfare and self discovery23 l.jpg
Interior Warfare and Self-Discovery

  • 18.62-63

    • With your whole being, Arjuna, take refuge in him alone—from his grace you will attain the eternal place that is peace.

    • This knowledge I have taught is more arcane than any mystery—consider it completely and then act as you chose.

Impact of the gita l.jpg
Impact of the Gita

  • Gandhi

    • The mystery of supreme discipline

  • Radhakrishnan