Workbook for “Conducting a Job Task Analysis(JTA)” A Primer for Performance Consultants
This workbook has been written to provide you, the performance Consultant with some of the basic concepts of a Job Task Analysis (JTA). The process identified here has been successfully used with JTAs done on various systems and platforms for the US Navy and US Marine Corps. It has also been used for JTAs that have been done for several other government agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Labor’s Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and NASA. The results have provided valid “audit trails” for what is actually being done on a job, thus allowing for explanation of why specific training objectives are being introduced in a course. In addition, the “audit trails” provide a cogent justification for the development of performance solutions. The information presented in this workbook is not intended to be a cookbook, in that the performance consultant is not required to follow all the processes. Rather the workbook is intended to be a guidebook that offers suggestions for approaching the analysis effort. It is acknowledged that all situations are different and require customized approaches. These unique approaches are left to the discretion of the lead analyst assigned to the project. More specific recommendations and suggestions can be obtained from the authors who are members of the Task Force Excel Human Performance Cell. They are government employees who are available for consultation on TFE analysis efforts. Please feel free to contact them them. Dr. Dennis Duke 407-380-8289 Dukeds@navair.navy.mil Dr. Edwin Meyer 407-380-8158 Meyeref@navair.navy.mil
Table of Contents Page Number What is a Job Task Analysis?………………………………...…....5 What are the steps in the process?…………………………...….…8 Why do a Job Task Analysis?………………………………….…..9 When should you do a Job Task Analysis?………………..….….10 Who should be involved?……………………………………...…11 Preparing for the Workshop………………………………………21 30 to 60 Days Before the Workshop………………………...……30 20 to 30 Days Before the Workshop……………………..…….…34 Day Before the Workshop………………………………………..40 Day of the Workshop……………………………………………..44 Conducting the Workshop- Facilitator…………………………...47 There Are Two Different Processes for Doing a JTA……………49 If you have a task list.…………………………………………….50 If you don't have a task list……………………………………….52 Writing and Mapping KSA Statements…………………………..65 Identifying Current Job Conditions………………………………66 After the workshop……………………………………………….71
Appendix Table Page Number Appendix A Tool Guide………………………………………………………..72 Appendix B Glossary….. ………………………………………..…………….94
What is a Job Task Analysis? • In a nutshell, it is a process for identifying what people do on a job. • A job is a group of major activities assigned to one individual (for example, a haul truck driver). • A job can be divided into duties. • A duty is a major activity involved in performing the job. One of the haul driver’s duties would be to perform the pre shift vehicle inspection. • Duties consist of tasks. • A task is a measurable, well-defined unit of work, with an identifiable beginning and end. One of the tasks performed by the driver would be to inspect the sight glass on the vehicle. Note that both the duty and the task contain an action verb and an object. This is an important point to remember when writing duties and tasks.
Let’s See how you did….Answers for theJob, Duty, Task, “Other” Exercise
What are the steps in the process? 1. Developing a list of tasks that are performed on the job. This could be done several ways, however, subject matter experts (SMEs), who are very familiar with the job must be involved from the start. 2. Validating the task list. This too is done by the SMEs and involves making sure the tasks are the right ones. 3. Assigning attributes to the task list (e.g. Importance, Frequency, Difficulty of the task). This is also done by experts. 4. Assigning knowledge, skills, and abilities to the tasks. This allows a broader view of what is required to do the job.
do a JTA? Why • It helps us identify what people are currently doing in their job. • It helps us identify what we should be training, people to do. • It helps to ensure that workers know exactly what is needed to perform their jobs safely and efficiently. • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 requires a JTA on each job so as not to discriminate against anyone. • Other purposes of a JTA are: • Job Grading & Classification • Promotion planning • Design of Job Performance Measures • Design of Selection Systems • So in a nutshell, JTA helps to ensure the following: • Improved safety • Enhanced productivity • Effective performance Helpful Hint: Use this page when explaining to management why the JTA should be done.
should you do a JTA? When • You should undertake a Job Task Analysis in the following situations. Which is your situation? • There is no valid information about what people are doing in their jobs. • There is no way to accurately measure how people are performing in their jobs.. • There is no training program. • There is a training program for the job, but it does not train workers to do the right things. • People seem overworked or unchallenged by their jobs. • The mission or purpose of the job has changed so the duties and tasks need to be revised.
should be involved? Who • Coordinator • Facilitator • Recorder • Subject matter experts (SME) Choose people wisely. Your workshop depends on it.
Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) • SMEs are individuals who have experience with the duties and tasks done on the job. • SMEs with different views of the job should be involved. List some of these people from your organization. • 1. _______________________________________________ • 2. _______________________________________________ • 3. _______________________________________________ • Who else might have a good view of the job? • Workers • Supervisors • Manufacturer’s reps (if equipment is involved on the job) • Union reps (if workers are unionized) • Maintenance personnel (those who fix the equipment that is involved on the job) • Always consider who you might have left out. Sometimes who to invite also depends on political issues. • Who else do you think you should invite?
SMEs: Job Workers • Full-time employees who are working in the jobs being analyzed. • Those individuals perceived as the “role model” for excellent job performance • Employees who are highly skilled and knowledgeable regarding the tasks* • Individuals who are aware of new requirements, procedures, equipment, and “lessons learned” * You may want to invite novice workers as well as those who have been in the position for years and are considered to be “highly skilled”. Novice workers may better resemble the people you will be training.
SMEs: Supervisors Supervisors are those individuals who: • Directly supervise and evaluate the workers who perform the job being analyzed • Have recent experience with the activities performed on the job • Have a good working relationship with the workers serving on the team
SMEs: Manufacturer’s Reps • If appropriate, engineers or manufacturer’s representatives should be invited. • They have knowledge of how the equipment used on the job is designed and how it should be operated. Should also be familiar with the tasks that are performed using their equipment. Sometimes SMEs who have been on the for years develop “bad habits” and perform operations that can be harmful to the equipment or to themselves. Often time thy do this without realizing it. You don’t want them to pass on the habits to new employees.
The Facilitator runs the workshop. • They facilitate or run the JTA breakout sessions but does not provide technical input toward the task list. • Two people sometimes serve as Facilitators. A “Lead Facilitator” runs the workshop and makes sure the SMEs do not stray from the topic. A “Technical Facilitator” is a senior SME who acts as the final decision maker when there is indecision about a technical issue. Having both facilitators is not required. • They help the SMEs find good ways to state the tasks they perform. • They make sure the group is making good progress toward defining the duties and tasks
Personal Skills Flexibility The ability to establish and maintain enthusiasm Patience A high degree of sensitivity to both verbal and nonverbal communication Excellent memory A sense of humor Excellent listening skills The ability to display warmth and establish rapport quickly with team members The ability to motivate, encourage, and focus team members Job Analysis Skills Expertise in job analysis processes Skill in questioning techniques The ability to lead and control the process but encourage team members to participate. Skill in working with small groups. The ability to keep the team on track. The ability to recognize vague statements and help the team select the most appropriate wording. Wow! It seems like the facilitator should have some special skills. What are they?
The Coordinator wears many hats. • The coordinator organizes the entire analysis effort. This includes setting up the workshop and the preparing the final results. • As the Coordinator, your role is to prepare for the workshop. • Work with management to select JTA workshop participants • Gather job-related information for use during the workshop • Schedule the workshop meeting roomThe Coordinator may or may not act as a Facilitator in one of the workshop breakout sessions.* • When there is more than one group of SMEs at the workshop, the coordinator should not be a facilitator. Rather he/she should be responsible for assuring that both groups follow the same rules. Sometimes 2 groups of SMEs are assembled and provided with the same assignment. This allows for a “validation of results” and insures that tasks are not forgotten.
And what about the recorder? • The recorder’s role is to write down everything that is said in the workshop. It will become evident later why this is necessary. • This person should be very detail-oriented and able to take good, clear notes. • This person should also be able to type into a computer. • Can you think of anyone who fits this description for your workshop?
Now that you have the basics, let’s open the door to running a workshop. • Preparing for the workshop • Conducting the workshop • After the workshop
Preparing for the Workshop General Tasks
Preparing for the Workshop • Identify the potential participants (subject matter experts and administrators) who will be involved in the JTA. • Secure management (from organizations that supply the subject matter experts) approval. • Choose dates and a schedule for a workshop. • Contact team members (all who will be participating). • Prepare and send “read-ahead” material to all participants. • Confirm arrangements and schedules with participants. • Gather/insure supplies are available for the workshop. • Familiarize yourself as well as the analysis team with the job being analyzed. Many of the preparation tasks should be done at the same time, not one after the other.
Item 1: Identify Participants- Worksheet The coordinator should find answers for the following questions: • Who are the SMEs currently working in this job that can be used for this JTA?*1 • Who are their supervisors? • Which job workers have the best idea of what tasks are performed on the job? • Which supervisors have the best idea of what tasks should be performed on the job? • What other people have a good view of the job tasks? • Who has the skills to facilitate the workshop? • Who can take very detailed notes? • What other people who are important for the success of the JTA and should be invited to observe?*2 *1Remember, it is a good idea to get some seasoned veterans and some novices who are working in this type of job. *2 Think about political considerations of your organization. Invite those who you think will help you make your analysis effort successful.
Item 2: Secure management approval • Get management approval of your participation as Coordinator • Get approval from the managers who manage the people in the job(s) being analyzed • Get approval from the managers who can release expert job incumbents, related maintenance personnel (if applicable) and their supervisors for participation in the workshop • Get approval from the department responsible for developing the performance solution Attention!! This step is very important.
What should I talk to management about? • Why job analysis is needed and why the process produces fast results. Explain that the performance solution for the (name of job position being analyzed) should be based on a valid task list. Refer to “Why do a JTA?” in this workbook (p. 8). • Purpose of Seminar. Explain that during a 3 to 5 day JTA workshop, the task list will be developed and, at the same time, staff will learn how to conduct future job analyses for other programs. • Agenda. Present and explain an agenda for the workshop. Explain what the participants will be doing throughout the workshop. A sample agenda is shown later in the Appendix A (p 81 ). • Who needs to be involved. Using the information from the previous section, explain that the seminar must involve a special mix of people who must be allowed to participate, uninterrupted, for the entire 3 days: • 2 to 5 SMEs • 1 supervisor • 1 coordinator • 1 or 2 facilitators • 1-5 observers • 1 maintainer (if applicable) • 1 manufacturer’s representative (if applicable) • What the final product will be and how it will be used. Explain that the analysis results will be the foundation upon which performance solutions will be built.
What should I talk to management about? (cont.) • In addition, you should ask a manager from the operating organization needing the task list to conduct a brief (10 to 15 minute) welcome during the “Introduction” lesson on the first morning of the seminar. • The manager should welcome the team officially, thank the team members for their participation, and: • recognize the importance of the team’s work in the workshop. • drop-in periodically throughout the seminar to see how it is progressing. • express their support for the people who participated in the process. • Ask managers to give you names of people for the workshop based on the “qualifications” described in the previous section. • Ask managers to let these people know about the upcoming workshop before you invite them to participate. Look at the checklist tool to help you talk to management.
Item 3: Establish Dates for 3-Day JTA Workshop • Remember that it may take you 30 to 90 days to complete all Coordinator responsibilities (working part-time, of course). • When the 3-day JTA workshop is being done by outside experts, you will need to work with them to schedule a date. Tuesday through Thursday may work best for travel schedules. • When asking for management’s approval (previous section), ask if they have suggestions for dates that would be best for the people who will be participating (shift schedules, scheduled outages, etc.). • Depending on where the workshop will be held and who is invited, consider whether people will need to transfer security clearances.
Item 4: Select and Schedule Seminar Meeting Room Room Characteristics • Unbroken wall surface of at least 30 feet on two walls and should be big enough to comfortably accommodate the team and observers. • No doors, windows, or other obstructions on the JTA workshop walls. • Choose supplies based on the kind of walls in the room (non-marking putty, tape, post-it pads, push pins, staples, etc.). • People should be able to see each other and anything that is attached to the walls. Please see the Room Selection Checklist in the Tools Guide.
Item 4: Select and Schedule Meeting Room cont. • Supplies include: • overhead projector with screen (so as to be able to show the computer monitor on the screen) • two flipchart stands with 4 pads of flipchart paper • one small calculator • Facilitator will need a laptop computer and access to a printer. Make sure you coordinate computer needs with the Facilitator. • Arrange for healthful refreshments such as juice, ice water, coffee, tea, fruits, vegetables, crackers, etc. so that people will be alert and energetic. • Room can be on-site or off-site. Choose the location with the fewest distractions.
Preparing for the Workshop 30 to 60 Days Before the Workshop
Item 1: Contact Prospective Team Members Assuming you have already obtained management approval: • If possible, meet personally with people (SMEs and others) to invite them to the workshop. • Send a formal invitation with any read-ahead materials. • Have management assure workers that participation in the workshop is a good thing. • Make sure everyone understands the purpose of job analysis. Hint: You can use the management approval materials to explain JTA to SMEs.
Item 2: Contact Prospective Observers • Invite observers who need to know how to conduct or plan a JTA. • Observers may include training staff, human resources staff, or other interested management.
Item 3: Contact Operating Organization Management • Ensure that the operating organization manager who agreed to serve as the “welcoming official” understands he/she should drop in periodically to observe the workshop. • Near the end of the workshop, this person should attend long enough to observe and comment on the results derived from the workshop.
Preparing for the Workshop 20 to 30 Days Before the Workshop
Item 1: Gather/Send Information for Review by Facilitator • Send job information to the Facilitator at least 10-20 days prior to the JTA workshop. • Facilitator should use the information to create real-life examples of tasks. • The following items should be sent to the Facilitator: • The title of the job position/program being analyzed • A brief job description (job posting) • A description of what the final product will (should) look like • The existing task list for the job position or a similar job (if available) • The existing list of Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the job (if available) • A list of all procedures associated with the job (if available) • 3 to 5 procedures that describe the tasks involved in the job (or all of them, if possible and not too bulky) JOB TASKS
Item 2: Confirm Arrangements with all JTA Participants • Should include the meeting time and location. • Stress that each team member must be present and participate in all portions of the workshop. • Each team member must also be on time for all sessions, because people who are late or part-timers that miss some of the orientation or group discussion may seriously disrupt the proceedings. • Send copies of these letters to the appropriate supervisors or managers. • Remember also to confirm the introduction, observations, and ending by the operating organization manager (welcoming official). Please see the sample letter in the Tool Guide.
Preparing for the Workshop 5 to 10 Days Before the Workshop
Item 1: Call Each JTA Participant • It is highly recommended that you make confirming phone calls to each JTA participant (team members, observers, and welcoming official) 5 to 10 days prior to the seminar. This provides them with an opportunity to ask questions and to confirm their plans to attend. If several people must cancel at this time, there is still time to seek qualified alternates.
Item 2: Gather Seminar Supplies • Be sure to have all supplies on hand for the workshop. • Facilitator usually brings the supplies, participant materials, and instructional materials. • Coordinator is usually responsible for having “equipment” and “other” supplies available in the meeting room. Please see the Supplies Checklist in the Tool Guide.
Preparing for the Workshop Day Before the Workshop
Item 1: Make Final Check • Check the room, supplies, equipment, refreshments, and all other arrangements. • Bring several copies of all documents that may help team members identify tasks. • Bring several copies of the Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and other attribute lists that will need to be mapped to the tasks (if available) • Be sure the tables are arranged appropriately.
Item 2: Meet and Review Plans with Facilitator • Coordinate with the Facilitator as to who should say what during the workshop introduction. • Facilitator should provide a brief biography so you can introduce him/her.
Item 3: Discuss Introductions with Welcoming Official • Make sure the welcoming official understands what he/she is supposed to say and how long to spend talking during the introduction. • Ask the welcoming official if there is anything special he/she would like you to say when you introduce him/her.
Preparing for the Workshop Day of the Workshop
Item 1: Make Introductions • This seminar begins with a series of short introductions: • First, you should introduce the welcoming official (manager). • The manager should welcome the team officially, thank the team members for their participation, and say how important their participation is for the JTA workshop. (This should take no longer than 10 minutes.) • You should introduce the Instructor/Facilitator’s qualifications and experience according to the biography. (This should only take 2 - 3 minutes.) • The Facilitator will introduce him/herself by stating his/her name, where he/she works, what his/her primary job is, and what his/her experience has been in performing a job analysis. (This should only take 5 minutes.)
Item 2: See to the Needs of the Participants • Ensure that any food and beverages arrive on time and are of good quality. • If off-site, arrange for the use of telephones so that participants may check messages during breaks. • Monitor the satisfaction of the participants and work to eliminate any issues.
Conducting the Workshop- Facilitator Ground Rules and Procedures
Sessions will start and stop on time. 100 mile rule is in effect. You can only leave if you have an emergency for which you would travel 100 miles to handle. No side conversations. One person talks at a time No personal attacks. Decisions will be made by consensus. Stick to the agenda/topic at hand. Adhere to the reasonable person standard. What would a reasonable person think? Leave rank and grade at the door. Ground rules may be changed by consensus. Ground Rules
There Are Two Different Processes for Doing a JTA • If you already have a task and knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA)lists (that may be outdated), the process can be shortened and simplified. • If you have no task or KSA lists, then the full-blown JTA process should be used. The following pages will describe both of these processes.
If you have a task list,... • Place the tasks in a spreadsheet. • Review the tasks with the SMEs. • Have the SMEs make sure that the tasks: • are actually performed on the job • are written clearly and have an action verb and an object • are written in a way to show an action that is observable and has a beginning and an end • use job related terminology as necessary • Have the SMEs identify what tasks are missing. • List the missing tasks.* When you have a list you can use the Mind Manager software program to help organize the task list.