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Workbook Pages for Romanization Unit: Pg. 114 – 3 & 4 Pg. 118 - all Pg. 119 - 7 only Pg. 123 1, 2 & 3 Pg. 129 all Pg. 130 7 & 8 Pg. 131 all Pg. 134 1, 2 & 3 Pg. 135 5, 6 & 7. Romanization. How did Rome become a vast empire?. The Roman army was powerful and well-organized.

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Workbook Pages for Romanization Unit:
  • Pg. 114 – 3 & 4
  • Pg. 118 - all
  • Pg. 119 - 7 only
  • Pg. 123 1, 2 & 3
  • Pg. 129 all
  • Pg. 130 7 & 8
  • Pg. 131 all
  • Pg. 134 1, 2 & 3
  • Pg. 135 5, 6 & 7
how did rome become a vast empire
How did Rome become a vast empire?
  • The Roman army was powerful and well-organized.
  • Its military conquered (defeated) the entire Mediterranean region.
  • Army generals knew how to win on the battlefield (effective military tactics).
rome as a kingdom
Rome as a Kingdom:

It began over 2,750 years ago as a small village, located on the Italian peninsula in Europe.

They had fertile soil & fresh water.

At the beginning, Rome was ruled by a king.

The first king was the mythical Romulus.

All the kings thereafter claimed they were directly related to Romulus, and that gave them the right to rule.

The Legend of Romulus & Remus

Rhea was married to Mars, the Roman god of war. Rhea had twin sons. She loved her boys, but there were plots afoot by other gods and goddesses to harm her father, herself, her husband, and her children. To protect the boys, she set them adrift on the river, hoping someone would find them. Who would not love such beautiful boys?

Sure enough, first they were found by a she-wolf who fed them. Then a shepherd and his wife adopted the boys. 

As the twins grew older, they decided they did not want to take care of sheep. They wanted to be kings. They decided to build a city on the shores of the Tiber. They both wanted to be the only king. They quarreled. In a fit of rage, Romulus picked up a rock, killed his brother, and made himself king. 

That’s how Rome started.

the circus maximus
The Circus Maximus 

It was a race track.

It seated 250,000 people.

It burnt down several times.

It was eventually rebuilt using marble & concrete.

roman theatre pantomime
Roman Theatre & Pantomime

Romans loved live theatre.

Plays were only performed during religious ceremonies & festivals (over 200 holidays a year).

Wealthy nobles would pay the bill, in honor of the gods, and give the play to the people as a gift.

The actors were men.

They wore simple costumes.

The same actor would play several roles.

They held up happy or sad face masks to help the audience understand what was going on in the play. 

Roman actors used a technique called pantomime.

Pantomime is a play without words.

horatius at the bridge
Horatius at the Bridge

The last king, Tarquin the Proud, did not treat people fairly.

King Tarquin was cruel, mean, horrible and he was hated by his people.

The legend known as Horatius at the Bridge explains how the Romans got rid of their last king.

This story helped to build the reputation of Rome's army & that it was a protected city, watched over by the gods.

As the story goes ...

Once upon a time, a long time ago, the ancient Romans said, “Enough. We’ve had it with you, King Tarquin the Proud, the Mean, the Nasty and the Unfair. Go away. Leave our city.” They threw him out.

Well, Tarquin the Proud didn’t like that much. He went to the Etruscans and said, “I need some help. Rome threw me out. They must pay.” The Etruscans said, “Sure, we’ll give you some help. We’ll give you an army.” Back Tarquin came.

Rome was taken by surprise. The people who lived in the surrounding countryside fled towards Rome as fast as they could. They poured across the narrow wooden bridge over the Tiber that connected Rome with its farm fields on the other side, seeking refuge in the walled city of Rome. The Etruscan army was on their heels.
Inside the city, the Romans were in such a panic, they forgot to destroy the bridge, or perhaps it never occurred to them to do so. Led by Tarquin the Proud, who knew his way around Rome pretty well, the Etruscan army headed for narrowest piece of the Tiber, where of course the Romans had built their bridge. Imagine their delight when they discovered that the Romans had left the bridge for them to cross. They would not have to swim the Tiber to reach Rome.
It was disaster. If the Etruscans crossed the bridge, they would take Rome. Horatius, a young Roman soldier, called to his friends, “Come on! We’ll hold the bridge while the others chop it down.” His friends froze. They were terrified at the thought of facing an entire army. “Then at least chop the bridge down while I hold them off alone,” Horatius pleaded.
He stood on the bridge and faced the Etruscan army alone. “Who among you is brave enough to face a Roman soldier,” he shouted. The Etruscans threw spears at him. But they were some distance away, and the bridge itself gave Horatius protection. Horatius stood firm, fighting like a hero. When the Etruscans tried to cross the narrow bridge, Horatius cut them down. Two of his friends rushed out to help him. Behind them, other young soldiers were frantically sawing at the heavy cords that held the bridge. 
Horatius felt the bridge give way. “Go back,” he shouted at his friends. His friends raced for the protection of the walled city. It was hopeless, they thought. One man cannot stop an army. Only the gods could save them now. As the bridge began to fall, Horatius turned and dived into the Tiber. The gods were with him. He swam back to Rome safely, and received a hero’s welcome.
The Etruscan army fell back. How could one man face an army and live? It was an omen. They did not wish to anger the gods. It was true what they said about Rome. It was a divine city. Tarquin the Proud screamed and shouted and carried on something awful. But nothing he said convinced the Etruscan army to swim the Tiber and fight Rome. The Etruscan army went home. And they never came back again.
As the story goes, when the last king of Rome was overthrown in 510 BCE, over 2500 years ago, the Roman people vowed NEVER TO BE RULED BY A KING AGAIN. Nor were they. Rome went on to establish, for the first time in history, a government by the people and for the people of Rome. They called it the Roman Republic.
the roman republic 509 bc 29 bc
The Roman Republic (509 BC - 29 BC)

The REPUBLIC (a country without a King or Emperor) was set up to make sure that there weren't any more tyrants in charge of Rome.


Roman Republic:

3 main parts of government

the 2 consuls
The 2 Consuls

They were the head of government (highest position).

They controlled the army! 

Background Info:

They were members of the Senate.

They were elected to serve for one year.

the senate
The Senate

They were the law makers.

They controlled spending.

Background Info:

Senators came from rich, wealthy families called patricians.

Members of the Senate were not elected.

They were chosen by the 2 Consuls.

Once chosen, they served for life.

300 senators in total.

the assembly
The Assembly

The Assembly held meetings in the Forum to vote for or suggested laws.

Background Info:

It had limited power…

It could vote for or suggest laws, but the Senate could block its decisions.

(ex: It could vote to declare war, but again, the Senate could block their decision). 

Plebeians made up the Assembly.

the assembly did have one impressive power
The Assembly did have one impressive power!

The Assembly voted each year on which two members of the Senate would serve as Consuls.

If you wanted to rise to the level of Consul, the highest position, you needed to gain the support of the assembly (plebeian class!)

Most of the people in Rome fell under this class.

roman institutions under the empire
Roman Institutions Under the Empire

1. The Emperor

Head of the army and government

Controlled all institutions

Chosen by the army

He appointed (to choose someone for a position/job) the senators, the governors and senior officials.

Proposed laws to the magistrates.

2 governors and senior officials
2.Governors and Senior Officials
  • Governors led the provinces.
  • Most governors were former local chiefs of these provinces who had become Romanized.
  • They applied the laws.
  • They managed the administration of these provinces.
3 senators
3. Senators
  • They were appointed for life by the emperor.
  • They managed foreign policy.
  • They were former magistrates.
  • They supervised the current magistrates.
4 magistrates
4. Magistrates
  • Quaestors (finance)
  • Aediles (maintenance)
  • Praetors (justice)
  • Consuls (military)
  • Magistrates were elected by the people.

5. Roman Citizens

  • They voted on laws.
  • They elected the magistrates.
the great orators of rome
The great Orators of Rome

In ancient Rome, certainly money talked, but so did those who had the power of speech. The Romans loved a great orator. When the Assembly met, down at the Forum, many speeches were going on at the same time. One speaker might say, "Rome's roads need repair!" Another speaker might say, "We need to stop crime in the streets." If you wanted your speech to have an impact, it did not matter how rich or poor you were. What mattered was how persuasive you were as a speaker.    

roman citizenship
Roman Citizenship
  • Men only
  • They completed military training and pay taxes.
  • As the Empire expanded, the right to Roman citizenship was extended to people of conquered territories

Criteria for Candidates:

  • Be an ally and settle in Rome
  • Report someone who had misbehaved or render a service to the city
  • Serve in the army
  • Be considered Romanized (adopted Latin & way of life)
roman social groups
Roman Social Groups

Roman Citizens were either patricians or plebeians (Merchants and peasants).

Peregrins (Free foreigners/immigrants!)

Freed slaves (freed by their masters or who had bought their freedom)


roman law rise of the republic
Roman Law (Rise of the Republic)

Only the patricians were allowed to lead the city.

Laws were unfair because they were not applied the same way for all citizens.

To fix this situation, the plebeians were given new powers and a written code of laws was finally established: Law of the Twelve Tables.

the evolution of roman law
The Evolution of Roman Law
  • Law of the Twelve Tables (451BC- 449 BC)

It stated the following:

  • All citizens were equal before the law.
  • All privileges ended.
  • Arbitrary decisions also ended.
  • An arbitrary decision is one made without considering the facts and circumstances presented, and it suggests that evidence may be ignored.
law of the twelve tables
Law of the Twelve Tables

Civil law:

  • Set of laws dealing with the rights of private citizens.

Criminal law:

  • Set of laws that apply to crimes.
  • The code of laws was secular (non-religious).
2 perpetual edict
2. Perpetual Edict
  • Emperor Hadrian created it.
  • It ensured equal justice for all.
  • It imposed a uniform (same) order and rule of law throughout all the Roman provinces.
  • It defended slaves against their masters.
3 justinian code
3. Justinian Code
  • It was created around 527 AD by Emperor Justinian.
  • This code reformed (changed) Roman law.
  • This code set the foundation for modern civil law.

Established Principals:

  • It stated that one can only be judged for one’s actions and not for one’s thoughts.
  • The accuser was responsible for proving the guilt of the accused.

(485 AD-565 AD)

the forum
The Forum

The Forum was the main marketplace, a business center and a place for public speaking.

Orators (public speakers) knew how to argue persuasively (convincingly)!  

It was also used for festivals/religious ceremonies.

the roman legion
The Roman Legion

Used chain mail (a cloth made of circular links).

Used scale armor (small metal plates sewn together on a linen/leather backing).

Some armor was made of leather, with metal on the inside.

Army was organized into legions.

Each legion has 6 000 soldiers called legionaries and was led by a tribune.

Legions were split into centuries that were led by a centurion.


Insubordination (failure to obey an order from a superior) was severely punished: a legionary could deprived of his wages, be demoted (lose military rank) or even beheaded.

  • They served for 25 years before retiring (career).
  • They were given land and a pension.
  • They were intimidating (most people gave up without a fight when legionaries marched into a region).
roman roads and trade
Roman Roads and Trade

There’s an old expression, "All roads lead to Rome."

A road was always built from a conquered city back to Rome.

Were built in straight lines/had gutters.

Built road signs called milestones along the side of roads (they told how far it was back to Rome). 

The provinces took advantage of Rome`s road system to export their products.
  • Most of the products were sold in Rome, where the wealthiest inhabitants lived.
  • Provinces supplied Rome with natural resources (ex: wood), finished products (ex: carpets) and slaves.
the provinces
The Provinces

A province was a geographic area outside of Italy, ruled by Rome.

They were countries or regions that Rome had conquered (had valuable resources).

They provided manpower, taxes and natural resources (ex: gold) to Rome.

Tax money was used to maintain the army and public buildings, and to pay civil servants (government workers).


It also allowed the emperor to offer bread and circuses at the Coliseum and Circus Maximus.

  • This gained the sympathy of the poor and avoided any attempt of rebellion.
the punic wars hannibal of carthage 264 bc to 146 bc
The Punic Wars & Hannibal of Carthage (264 BC to 146 BC)

A long time ago, when Rome was a Republic, a big fight broke out between Rome and Carthage. Carthage was a big city in North Africa, about 300 miles from Rome. Carthage and Rome had never liked each other. But they had pretty much left each other alone in the past. Both cities were busy building empires of their own.

first punic war
First Punic War

One day, Rome took a good look at how big Carthage was getting. The problem, as Rome saw it, was that Carthage controlled three islands off the coast of Italy. That was too close for comfort. Rome decided that Carthage needed to join the Republic. Carthage disagreed. Carthage and Rome fought for 20 years. This was the first Punic War. Nobody won. After 20 years of fighting, all they had accomplished was to kill a lot of people and to cause a lot of hatred. 

The capture of the Carthaginian fleet by the Romans during the First Punic War. Roman soldiers are walking across the corvus of their fleet to board and attack a Carthaginian ship.

To end the fighting, Carthage offered Rome a deal. They said: “If you’ll go away and leave us alone, we’ll give you the island of Sicily.” Rome took the deal. They also took Sardinia and Corsica, the other two islands off the coast of Italy.

Carthage was furious. But they were tired of fighting Rome. Carthage decided to fight Spain instead, and make up the land they had lost there.  

Map of Rome and Carthage at the start of the Second Punic War

They ordered a talented general to leave Carthage and conquer Spain. The general had lost of good friends in the war with Rome. He believed Carthage should fight Rome until they won, and stop Rome now, before Rome got any bigger. But he could not convince the other leaders in Carthage that he was right. The general took his army and his nine-year-old son, Hannibal, and left for Spain. Before he left home, he made his son swear that as soon as he was old enough, Hannibal would fight the Romans and make them pay for all the lives they had cost. Hannibal promised. That was the beginning of the legend of Hannibal, military genius.

Over the next several years, while fighting in Spain, Hannibal learned to be a strong leader. His Dad had taught him well. His men had taught him well. Plus, he was naturally tricky. Hannibal won most of his battles by coming up with clever ideas. One time, while fighting at sea, Hannibal had his men dump barrels full of live snakes onto the deck of an enemy ship. The enemy had not expected Hannibal to do that. They weren’t prepared to fight snakes. Hannibal won that battle easily.

A few years after his Dad died, the soldiers in Spain chose him to be their new general. He was only 26 years old at the time. Hannibal did not hesitate. He took the job, married a Spanish princess, and started wars with several cities in Spain. His plan was to conquer all of Spain.
second punic war
Second Punic War

One of the cities he attacked happened to be good friends with Rome. Rome decided to lend a hand. But Rome did not send help to Spain. They declared war on Carthage, Hannibal’s hometown and the center of the Carthage Empire.

That was fine with Hannibal. He had never forgotten the promise he had made to his father. He had orders from Carthage to fight Rome. He needed to take Rome by surprise. He decided to attack Rome from the north. Rome would never expect that.  Hannibal’s plan was to march 90,000 foot soldiers, 12,000 cavalry, and 37 elephants from Spain, through Gaul, over the Alps, into Italy, and then take Rome by force. 
His plan did not work as expected. First, the route was more rugged that he had expected. He lost nearly all his elephants and half his men on the trip. Second, he expected people in Northern Italy to help him. They did help him by leaving him alone. But they would not join his army. Third, Carthage did not have a strong navy to use to send supplies. 

Hannibal came up with a new plan. Instead of marching on Rome, he drove Rome crazy by attacking smaller outposts and stealing food and weapons, food intended for Rome. Hannibal and his men stayed on the Italian peninsula for 15 years, causing trouble where he could.

In 203 BCE, Rome had had it with Hannibal. They couldn’t catch him, so they attacked Carthage instead. Carthage, in a panic, called Hannibal home. Before Hannibal could arrive, Carthage had agreed to peace terms with Rome. Terms:

Carthage would leave Spain, Gaul, and Italy

Carthage would reduce their navy to 20 warships

Carthage had to pay 5000 talents (the money of the time) in war damages

Once Hannibal arrived home, the leaders in Carthage changed their minds. They decided not to honor their peace terms. Rome was furious. They sent an army to Carthage. Hannibal’s army lost, but Hannibal managed to get away. If possible, Rome was even more furious. Carthage had not kept their promise. Rome still did not have their hands on Hannibal. One year late, in 202 BCE the peace terms were more severe.

Carthage would leave Spain, Gaul, and Italy

Carthage would reduce their navy to 10 warships

Carthage had to pay 10000 talents (the money of the time) in war damages, in 50 equal annual payments, over the next 50 years

Carthage called it quits. They left Spain. They left Gaul. They left Italy. They reduced their navy. They paid the talents they owed each year, promptly. The 2nd Punic War, started so many years earlier when Hannibal was just a young man, was finally over. That did not stop Hannibal, though. Hannibal spent the rest of his life fighting the growing power of ancient Rome. The Romans never stopped looking for him. In spite of all their best efforts, the Romans did not catch up with Hannibal until he was 64 years old! Even then, they didn’t get him. He chose to die by swallowing the poison he kept in his ring.

Handmade oil painting reproduction of Hannibal swearing eternal enmity to Rome,

a painting by Jacopo (Giacomo) Amigoni.

Hannibal still ranks as one of the most magnificent military minds in history and one of the world’s greatest generals

julius caesar 100 bc to 44 bc
Julius Caesar (100 BC to 44 BC)

Gained religious, political and military power.

Led victorious military campaigns in Spain and Gaul and seized power in Rome.

Given emergency powers by the consuls during war time.

Continued his war campaign as an excuse to continue ruling over Rome

Declared himself dictator of Rome and refused to return power back to the consul.

Assassinated by his own people shortly after.

Adopted son, Augustus, took over and became the first Roman emperor.

rome as an empire
Rome as an Empire

When the Roman Republic failed, Rome became an empire ruled by emperors.

Many things changed.

Although the Senate met and argued, the real power was now in the hands of an all-powerful emperor.

Romans had accepted the leadership of an emperor (a dictator).

Under Augustus, the first Roman emperor, the people got used to being ruled by one leader.

In the 500 years Rome was an Empire, there were over 140 different emperors!

augustus first roman emperor julius caesar s adopted son
Augustus: First Roman emperor (Julius Caesar’s adopted son)

He ruled for over 45 years.

During his reign, Rome was at peace.

This period is the beginning of the PaxRomana, or Roman Peace.

The phrase "Roman Peace" is a bit misleading because Rome continued to expand its empire using military force.

The empire was united for approximately 200 years.

Other changes included:

1. Public Health Programs were created:

One program offered free bread to workers on their way to work.

2. Reduction in Crime:

Streets were policed by legionaries

When criminals heard the legionaries approaching, they typically scattered.


3. Improvements for Women:

  • It became legal for women to own land, run businesses, free slaves, make wills, inherit wealth, and get a paid job.
rise of christianity
Rise of Christianity

It started to spread in Rome in the 1st century.

Christians believed in one god.

Christians refused to worship the Roman gods.

Since this was against the law, Christians were hunted as criminals.

Christianity had a great appeal to Rome's poor.  

It promised life after death in heaven.

In the Roman religion, only gods went to heaven.

In 313 AD, Emperor Constantine ruled that Christianity was legal and that Christians would no longer be persecuted for their beliefs.

the roman empire is split into two pieces
The Roman Empire is Split into Two Pieces

The empire continued to expand mainly for the following reasons:

well-built roads,

Strong Roman army

Good leadership (emperors and generals)

Rome´s expansion did cause problems in the long run because the provinces did not always do what they were told.

emperor valens the barbarians
Emperor Valens & the Barbarians

Barbarian was the name given to any people who lived outside the borders of the Roman Empire or to someone who did not speak Latin.

Valens tried to be a good emperor, but he inherited a great many problems:

Rome was broke:

Roman roads started to fall into disrepair (No money to fix them!).

Without good roads, soldiers and goods did not always reach the far ends of the empire.

Barbarian Raids:

Barbarian raids on the Roman provinces were becoming more successful.

There were five main barbarian tribes in Europe that wanted to conquer the Roman Empire.






They were all successfully attacking various pieces of the Western Roman Empire at the same time.

roman achievements
Roman achievements


The invention of concrete, roman roads, roman arches, aqueducts.


Public health programs including welfare programs for the poor.


The Romans used Latin to communicate.


Roman mythology and the Catholic faith, which kept learning alive after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. 

Roman Law…

…including the law that states a person is innocent until proven guilty. 


Statues, jewelry, rings, mosaics, more 


The use of rings to denote friendship, engagements, and weddings, and the use greenery to decorate during winter holidays, and other holiday customs. 


Many board and ball games including knuckleball (jacks) and hoops.