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Workbook Pages for Romanization Unit: Pg. 114 – 3 & 4 Pg. 118 - all Pg. 119 - 7 only Pg. 123 1, 2 & 3 Pg. 129 all Pg. 130 7 & 8 Pg. 131 all Pg. 134 1, 2 & 3 Pg. 135 5, 6 & 7. Romanization. How did Rome become a vast empire?. The Roman army was powerful and well-organized.
It began over 2,750 years ago as a small village, located on the Italian peninsula in Europe.
They had fertile soil & fresh water.
The first king was the mythical Romulus.
All the kings thereafter claimed they were directly related to Romulus, and that gave them the right to rule.
Rhea was married to Mars, the Roman god of war. Rhea had twin sons. She loved her boys, but there were plots afoot by other gods and goddesses to harm her father, herself, her husband, and her children. To protect the boys, she set them adrift on the river, hoping someone would find them. Who would not love such beautiful boys?
Sure enough, first they were found by a she-wolf who fed them. Then a shepherd and his wife adopted the boys.
As the twins grew older, they decided they did not want to take care of sheep. They wanted to be kings. They decided to build a city on the shores of the Tiber. They both wanted to be the only king. They quarreled. In a fit of rage, Romulus picked up a rock, killed his brother, and made himself king.
That’s how Rome started.
It was a race track.
It seated 250,000 people.
It burnt down several times.
It was eventually rebuilt using marble & concrete.
Romans loved live theatre.
Plays were only performed during religious ceremonies & festivals (over 200 holidays a year).
Wealthy nobles would pay the bill, in honor of the gods, and give the play to the people as a gift.
They wore simple costumes.
The same actor would play several roles.
They held up happy or sad face masks to help the audience understand what was going on in the play.
Roman actors used a technique called pantomime.
Pantomime is a play without words.
The last king, Tarquin the Proud, did not treat people fairly.
King Tarquin was cruel, mean, horrible and he was hated by his people.
This story helped to build the reputation of Rome's army & that it was a protected city, watched over by the gods.
Once upon a time, a long time ago, the ancient Romans said, “Enough. We’ve had it with you, King Tarquin the Proud, the Mean, the Nasty and the Unfair. Go away. Leave our city.” They threw him out.
Well, Tarquin the Proud didn’t like that much. He went to the Etruscans and said, “I need some help. Rome threw me out. They must pay.” The Etruscans said, “Sure, we’ll give you some help. We’ll give you an army.” Back Tarquin came.
The REPUBLIC (a country without a King or Emperor) was set up to make sure that there weren't any more tyrants in charge of Rome.
3 main parts of government
They were the head of government (highest position).
They controlled the army!
They were members of the Senate.
They were elected to serve for one year.
They were the law makers.
They controlled spending.
Senators came from rich, wealthy families called patricians.
Members of the Senate were not elected.
They were chosen by the 2 Consuls.
Once chosen, they served for life.
300 senators in total.
The Assembly held meetings in the Forum to vote for or suggested laws.
It had limited power…
It could vote for or suggest laws, but the Senate could block its decisions.
(ex: It could vote to declare war, but again, the Senate could block their decision).
Plebeians made up the Assembly.
The Assembly voted each year on which two members of the Senate would serve as Consuls.
If you wanted to rise to the level of Consul, the highest position, you needed to gain the support of the assembly (plebeian class!)
Most of the people in Rome fell under this class.
1. The Emperor
Head of the army and government
Controlled all institutions
Chosen by the army
He appointed (to choose someone for a position/job) the senators, the governors and senior officials.
Proposed laws to the magistrates.
5. Roman Citizens
In ancient Rome, certainly money talked, but so did those who had the power of speech. The Romans loved a great orator. When the Assembly met, down at the Forum, many speeches were going on at the same time. One speaker might say, "Rome's roads need repair!" Another speaker might say, "We need to stop crime in the streets." If you wanted your speech to have an impact, it did not matter how rich or poor you were. What mattered was how persuasive you were as a speaker.
Criteria for Candidates:
Roman Citizens were either patricians or plebeians (Merchants and peasants).
Peregrins (Free foreigners/immigrants!)
Freed slaves (freed by their masters or who had bought their freedom)
Only the patricians were allowed to lead the city.
Laws were unfair because they were not applied the same way for all citizens.
To fix this situation, the plebeians were given new powers and a written code of laws was finally established: Law of the Twelve Tables.
It stated the following:
(485 AD-565 AD)
The Forum was the main marketplace, a business center and a place for public speaking.
It was also used for festivals/religious ceremonies.
Used chain mail (a cloth made of circular links).
Used scale armor (small metal plates sewn together on a linen/leather backing).
Some armor was made of leather, with metal on the inside.
Each legion has 6 000 soldiers called legionaries and was led by a tribune.
Legions were split into centuries that were led by a centurion.
Insubordination (failure to obey an order from a superior) was severely punished: a legionary could deprived of his wages, be demoted (lose military rank) or even beheaded.
There’s an old expression, "All roads lead to Rome."
A road was always built from a conquered city back to Rome.
Were built in straight lines/had gutters.
Built road signs called milestones along the side of roads (they told how far it was back to Rome).
A province was a geographic area outside of Italy, ruled by Rome.
They were countries or regions that Rome had conquered (had valuable resources).
They provided manpower, taxes and natural resources (ex: gold) to Rome.
Tax money was used to maintain the army and public buildings, and to pay civil servants (government workers).
It also allowed the emperor to offer bread and circuses at the Coliseum and Circus Maximus.
A long time ago, when Rome was a Republic, a big fight broke out between Rome and Carthage. Carthage was a big city in North Africa, about 300 miles from Rome. Carthage and Rome had never liked each other. But they had pretty much left each other alone in the past. Both cities were busy building empires of their own.
One day, Rome took a good look at how big Carthage was getting. The problem, as Rome saw it, was that Carthage controlled three islands off the coast of Italy. That was too close for comfort. Rome decided that Carthage needed to join the Republic. Carthage disagreed. Carthage and Rome fought for 20 years. This was the first Punic War. Nobody won. After 20 years of fighting, all they had accomplished was to kill a lot of people and to cause a lot of hatred.
The capture of the Carthaginian fleet by the Romans during the First Punic War. Roman soldiers are walking across the corvus of their fleet to board and attack a Carthaginian ship.
Carthage was furious. But they were tired of fighting Rome. Carthage decided to fight Spain instead, and make up the land they had lost there.
Map of Rome and Carthage at the start of the Second Punic War
Over the next several years, while fighting in Spain, Hannibal learned to be a strong leader. His Dad had taught him well. His men had taught him well. Plus, he was naturally tricky. Hannibal won most of his battles by coming up with clever ideas. One time, while fighting at sea, Hannibal had his men dump barrels full of live snakes onto the deck of an enemy ship. The enemy had not expected Hannibal to do that. They weren’t prepared to fight snakes. Hannibal won that battle easily.
One of the cities he attacked happened to be good friends with Rome. Rome decided to lend a hand. But Rome did not send help to Spain. They declared war on Carthage, Hannibal’s hometown and the center of the Carthage Empire.
Hannibal came up with a new plan. Instead of marching on Rome, he drove Rome crazy by attacking smaller outposts and stealing food and weapons, food intended for Rome. Hannibal and his men stayed on the Italian peninsula for 15 years, causing trouble where he could.
Carthage would leave Spain, Gaul, and Italy
Carthage would reduce their navy to 20 warships
Carthage had to pay 5000 talents (the money of the time) in war damages
Carthage would leave Spain, Gaul, and Italy
Carthage would reduce their navy to 10 warships
Carthage had to pay 10000 talents (the money of the time) in war damages, in 50 equal annual payments, over the next 50 years
Handmade oil painting reproduction of Hannibal swearing eternal enmity to Rome,
a painting by Jacopo (Giacomo) Amigoni.
Hannibal still ranks as one of the most magnificent military minds in history and one of the world’s greatest generals
Gained religious, political and military power.
Led victorious military campaigns in Spain and Gaul and seized power in Rome.
Given emergency powers by the consuls during war time.
Continued his war campaign as an excuse to continue ruling over Rome
Declared himself dictator of Rome and refused to return power back to the consul.
Assassinated by his own people shortly after.
Adopted son, Augustus, took over and became the first Roman emperor.
When the Roman Republic failed, Rome became an empire ruled by emperors.
Many things changed.
Although the Senate met and argued, the real power was now in the hands of an all-powerful emperor.
Romans had accepted the leadership of an emperor (a dictator).
In the 500 years Rome was an Empire, there were over 140 different emperors!
He ruled for over 45 years.
During his reign, Rome was at peace.
This period is the beginning of the PaxRomana, or Roman Peace.
The phrase "Roman Peace" is a bit misleading because Rome continued to expand its empire using military force.
The empire was united for approximately 200 years.
1. Public Health Programs were created:
One program offered free bread to workers on their way to work.
2. Reduction in Crime:
Streets were policed by legionaries
When criminals heard the legionaries approaching, they typically scattered.
It started to spread in Rome in the 1st century.
Christians believed in one god.
Christians refused to worship the Roman gods.
Since this was against the law, Christians were hunted as criminals.
Christianity had a great appeal to Rome's poor.
It promised life after death in heaven.
In 313 AD, Emperor Constantine ruled that Christianity was legal and that Christians would no longer be persecuted for their beliefs.
The empire continued to expand mainly for the following reasons:
Strong Roman army
Good leadership (emperors and generals)
Rome´s expansion did cause problems in the long run because the provinces did not always do what they were told.
Barbarian was the name given to any people who lived outside the borders of the Roman Empire or to someone who did not speak Latin.
Valens tried to be a good emperor, but he inherited a great many problems:
Roman roads started to fall into disrepair (No money to fix them!).
Without good roads, soldiers and goods did not always reach the far ends of the empire.
Barbarian raids on the Roman provinces were becoming more successful.
They were all successfully attacking various pieces of the Western Roman Empire at the same time.
The invention of concrete, roman roads, roman arches, aqueducts.
Public health programs including welfare programs for the poor.
The Romans used Latin to communicate.
Roman mythology and the Catholic faith, which kept learning alive after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
…including the law that states a person is innocent until proven guilty.
Statues, jewelry, rings, mosaics, more
The use of rings to denote friendship, engagements, and weddings, and the use greenery to decorate during winter holidays, and other holiday customs.
Many board and ball games including knuckleball (jacks) and hoops.