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The Stalemated Seventies, 1968–1980

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  1. Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies, 1968–1980

  2. Question All of the following were true of Vietnamization EXCEPT • Nixon’s goal was to withdraw the 540,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam over an extended period. • the South Vietnamese could then gradually take over the burden of fighting their own war. • Nixon felt the South Vietnamese could fight on without American money, weapons, training, and advice. • it evolved because there was a burning need to quiet the public uproar over Vietnam.

  3. Answer All of the following were true of Vietnamization EXCEPT • Nixon’s goal was to withdraw the 540,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam over an extended period. • the South Vietnamese could then gradually take over the burden of fighting their own war. • Nixon felt the South Vietnamese could fight on without American money, weapons, training, and advice. (correct) • it evolved because there was a burning need to quiet the public uproar over Vietnam. Hint: See page 1004.

  4. Question All of the following were true of the Nixon Doctrine EXCEPT • it proclaimed that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments. • in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars without the support of large bodies of American ground troops. • Nixon sought not to end the war, but to win it by other means, without the further spilling of American blood. • it proclaimed that communism was not monolithic and that the United States might enter into alliance with communist nations not affiliated with the regime in Moscow.

  5. Answer All of the following were true of the Nixon Doctrine EXCEPT • it proclaimed that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments. • in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars without the support of large bodies of American ground troops. • Nixon sought not to end the war, but to win it by other means, without the further spilling of American blood. • it proclaimed that communism was not monolithic, and that the United States might enter into alliance with communist nations not affiliated with the regime in Moscow. (correct) Hint: See page 1004.

  6. Question News stories about the My Lai Massacre revealed that • Vietnamese villagers had murdered innocent American troops in the village of My Lai. • American troops had murdered innocent women and children in the village of My Lai. • Nixon had ordered a coverup of the murder of hundreds of American troops. • Nixon had ordered a coverup of the murder of hundreds of Vietnamese villagers.

  7. Answer News stories about the My Lai Massacre revealed that • Vietnamese villagers had murdered innocent American troops in the village of My Lai. • American troops had murdered innocent women and children in the village of My Lai. (correct) • Nixon had ordered a coverup of the murder of hundreds of American troops. • Nixon had ordered a coverup of the murder of hundreds of Vietnamese villagers. Hint: See page 1005.

  8. Question All of the following were true of the Pentagon Papers EXCEPT • they fueled the fires of antiwar discontent. • a former Pentagon official leaked them to The New York Times. • they included a top-secret Pentagon study that documented the blunders and deceptions of the Nixon administration. • they chronicled how U.S. forces provoked the 1964 North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin.

  9. Answer All of the following were true of the Pentagon Papers EXCEPT • they fueled the fires of antiwar discontent. • a former Pentagon official leaked them to The New York Times. • they included a top-secret Pentagon study that documented the blunders and deceptions of the Nixon administration. (correct) • they chronicled how U.S. forces provoked the 1964 North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin. Hint: See page 1006.

  10. Question All of the following were true of Détente EXCEPT • Nixon concluded that the road out of Vietnam ran through Beijing and Moscow. • Nixon used Chinese-Soviet tension afforded the United States to play off one antagonist against the other. • Nixon hoped to enlist the aid of both in pressuring North Vietnam into peace. • because Nixon was an uncompromising anticommunist, he rejected an invitation to visit Communist China.

  11. Answer All of the following were true of Détente EXCEPT • Nixon concluded that the road out of Vietnam ran through Beijing and Moscow. • Nixon used Chinese-Soviet tension afforded the United States to play off one antagonist against the other. • Nixon hoped to enlist the aid of both in pressuring North Vietnam into peace. • because Nixon was an uncompromising anticommunist, he rejected an invitation to visit Communist China. (correct) Hint: See page 1006.

  12. Question All of the following were true of the SALT II Treaty EXCEPT • it limited the levels of lethal strategic weapons in the Soviet and American arsenals. • conservative supporters of the president’s defense policies pushed hard to ratify the SALT II treaty when it came to the Senate. • political earthquakes in the petroleum-rich Persian Gulf region finally buried all hopes of ratifying SALT II. • the SALT II treaty became a dead letter in the Senate after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

  13. Answer All of the following were true of the SALT II Treaty EXCEPT • it limited the levels of lethal strategic weapons in the Soviet and American arsenals. • conservative supporters of the president’s defense policies pushed hard to ratify the SALT II treaty when it came to the Senate. (correct) • political earthquakes in the petroleum-rich Persian Gulf region finally buried all hopes of ratifying SALT II. • the SALT II treaty became a dead letter in the Senate after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Hint: See page 1027.

  14. Question The case of Roe v. Wade proved that the • Warren Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “liberal” rulings of the Burger Court. • Burger Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “liberal” rulings of the Warren Court. • Warren Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “conservative” rulings of the Burger Court. • Burger Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “conservative” rulings of the Warren Court.

  15. Answer The case of Roe v. Wade proved that the • Warren Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “liberal” rulings of the Burger Court. • Burger Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “liberal” rulings of the Warren Court. (correct) • Warren Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “conservative” rulings of the Burger Court. • Burger Court that Nixon shaped proved reluctant to dismantle the “conservative” rulings of the Warren Court. Hint: See page 1008.

  16. Question All of the following were true of the War Powers Act EXCEPT • it was rendered ineffective by Nixon’s veto. • it required the president to report to Congress within forty-eight hours after committing troops to a foreign conflict. • a limited authorization would have to end within sixty days unless Congress extended it for thirty more days. • it was one manifestation of the “New Isolationism,” after the bloody and futile misadventure in Vietnam.

  17. Answer All of the following were true of the War Powers Act EXCEPT • it was rendered ineffective by Nixon’s veto. (correct) • it required the president to report to Congress within forty-eight hours after committing troops to a foreign conflict. • a limited authorization would have to end within sixty days unless Congress extended it for thirty more days. • it was one manifestation of the “New Isolationism,” after the bloody and futile misadventure in Vietnam. Hint: See page 1011.

  18. Question All of the following were aspects of the Watergate scandal EXCEPT the • “Smoking Gun” Tape. • “Saturday Night Massacre.” • “cover-up” of the Watergate break-in. • revelation that Nixon had sexual relations with a White House intern.

  19. Answer All of the following were aspects of the Watergate scandal EXCEPT the • “Smoking Gun” Tape. • “Saturday Night Massacre.” • “cover-up” of the Watergate break-in. • revelation that Nixon had sexual relations with a White House intern. (correct) Hint: See page 1013.

  20. Question All of the following were true of the Equal Rights Amendment EXCEPT • it was first proposed by suffragists in 1923. • it won congressional approval in 1972. • it declared, “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” • the necessary thirty-eight states quickly ratified the amendment.

  21. Answer All of the following were true of the Equal Rights Amendment EXCEPT • it was first proposed by suffragists in 1923. • it won congressional approval in 1972. • it declared, “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” • the necessary thirty-eight states quickly ratified the amendment. (correct) Hint: See page 1017.