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Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton. Appendicular Skeleton. 126 bones Consists of limbs and limb girdles to provide movement Pectoral girdle: 4 bones Upper limbs: 60 bones Pelvic girdle: 2 bones Lower limbs: 60 bones. Upper limbs. Carpal tunnel syndrome

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Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

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appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • 126 bones
  • Consists of limbs and limb girdles to provide movement
  • Pectoral girdle: 4 bones
  • Upper limbs: 60 bones
  • Pelvic girdle: 2 bones
  • Lower limbs: 60 bones
upper limbs
Upper limbs
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
    • Carpals arranged in two rows of four bones
    • Creates a U shape enclosed by the flexor retinaculum (ligament)
    • All tendons, vessels, and nerves of the hand must pass through channels between bones and ligaments (no extra space)
    • Any inflammation = pressure on nerves leading to pain
the appendicular skeleton
The Appendicular Skeleton
  • Allows us to move and manipulate objects
  • Includes all bones besides axial skeleton:
    • the limbs
    • the supportive girdles
the pectoral girdle8
The Pectoral Girdle
  • Also called the shoulder girdle
  • Connects the arms to the body
  • Positions the shoulders
  • Provides a base for arm movement
the pectoral girdle9
The Pectoral Girdle
  • Consists of:
    • 2 clavicles
    • 2 scapulae
  • Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium
the clavicles
The Clavicles

Figure 8–2b, c

the clavicles11
The Clavicles
  • Also called collarbones
  • Long, S-shaped bones
  • Originate at the manubrium (sternal end)
  • Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)
  • Costal Tuberosity:
    • Attachment for the costoclavicular ligament which articulates with the cartilage of the ribs
  • Conoid Tubercle:
    • Attachment for the conoid ligament which articulates with the coracoid process of the scapula
the scapulae
The Scapulae
  • Also called shoulder blades
  • Broad, flat triangles
  • Articulate with arm and collarbone
the scapula
The Scapula
  • Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa
    • attachment for the subscapularis muscle
      • Function to rotate the head of the humerus medially (internal rotation)
      • Function to draw the humerus forward and downward when the arm is raised

Figure 8–3a

structures of the scapula
Structures of the Scapula
  • Posterior surface
  • Supraspinous fossa
    • Origin for the supraspinatus muscle, which abducts (toward midline) the arm at the shoulder
    • Origin for the infraspinatus muscle, which adducts that arm

Figure 8–3c


Why would a broken clavicle affect the mobility of the scapula?

Muscles attach the clavicle to the scapula.

Clavicle is attached to the sternum which is attached to the scapula.

Clavicle attaches the scapula to the humerus.

Clavicle attaches the scapula to the sternum.

the upper limbs
The Upper Limbs
  • Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands

Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus

the humerus
The Humerus
  • Also called the arm
  • The long, upper armbone
  • Greater tuberosity
    • Attachment for suprasinatus and infrapinatus
  • Lesser tuberosity
    • Attachment for tendon of subscapularus

Figure 8–4

the humerus19
The Humerus
  • Epicondyle
    • Attachment for ligaments of the elbow-joint
    • Lateral: tendon of supinator muscle
    • Medial: tendon of flexor muscles of the forearm
  • Olecranon fossa
    • Receives process for the extension of the forearm
  • Coronoid fossa
    • Receives the coronoid process of the ulna during flexion (joint angle decreases) of the forearm

Figure 8–4

the forearm
The Forearm
  • Also called the antebrachium
  • Consists of 2 long bones:
    • ulna (medial)
    • radius (lateral)
  • Radial Tuberosity
    • Insertion of bicep brachii
  • Ulnar Tuberosity
    • Insertion of brachialis
  • Styloid Process
    • Muscle attachment for ulna or radius

Figure 8–5


The rounded projections on either side of the elbow are parts of which bone?




both A and B


Which bone of the forearm is lateral in the anatomical position?




depends on hand position

the wrist
The Wrist

Figure 8–6


Bill accidentally fractures his first distal phalanx with a hammer. Which finger is broken?


small finger

ring finger

index finger

the pelvic girdle
The Pelvic Girdle
  • Made up of 2 hipbones (ossa coxae)
  • Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement
  • Part of the pelvis
pelvic girdle
Pelvic Girdle
  • 2 os coxae
  • Note:
    • “pelvis” (no anatomical) = pelvic girdle (2 os coxae) + sacrum + coccyx
the pelvic girdle28
The Pelvic Girdle

Figure 8–7

the pelvis
The Pelvis

Figure 8–8

the pelvis30
The Pelvis
  • Consists of 2 ossa coxae, the sacrum, and the coccyx
  • Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae
  • Obturator Foramen
    • Opening for nerves and muscles to pass through
  • Acetabulum
    • Head of the femur meets with the pelvis; hip-joint
  • Ischial Tuberosity
    • Point of insertion for the semimembranosus, head of biceps femoris, and semitendinosus

Which three bones make up the os coxae?

ilium, ischium, and femur

ilium, ischium, and pubis

ilium, acetabulum, and pubis

ilium, femur, and pubis


When you are seated, which part of the pelvis bears your body’s weight?

obturator foramen

posteriorinferior iliac spines

ischial tuberosities

pubic tubercle

divisions of the pelvis34
Divisions of the Pelvis
  • True pelvis:
    • encloses pelvic cavity
    • 2 regions:
      • Pelvic brim: encloses pelvic inlet
      • Perineum region: perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity
  • False pelvis:
    • blades of ilium above arcuate line
comparing the male and female pelvis
Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis
  • Female pelvis:
    • Smoother and lighter
    • less prominent muscle and ligament attachments
pelvis modifications for childbearing
Pelvis Modifications for Childbearing
  • Enlarged pelvic outlet
  • Broad pubic angle (> 100°)
  • Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx
  • Wide, circular pelvic inlet
  • Broad, low pelvis

How is the pelvis of females adapted for childbearing?

narrow pubic angle

greater curvature on sacrum

broad, low pelvis

oval pelvic inlet

the lower limbs
The Lower Limbs
  • Functions:
    • weight bearing
    • motion

Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg

bones of the lower limbs
Bones of the Lower Limbs
  • Femur (thigh)
  • Patella (kneecap)
  • Tibia and fibula (leg)
  • Tarsals (ankle)
  • Metatarsals (foot)
  • Phalanges (toes)
the femur
The Femur
  • The longest, heaviest bone

Figure 8–11

  • Trochanters
    • Greater and lesser trochanters
    • tendon attachments
  • Shaft:
    • attaches hip muscles
  • Epicondyle:
    • Lateral and Medial epicondyle
    • Attachments for ligaments of the knee joint
the patella
The Patella

Figure 8–12

the patella45
The Patella
  • Also called the kneecap
  • A sesamoid bone
  • Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris
  • Base attaches quadriceps femoris
  • Apex attaches patellar ligament
the tibia
The Tibia

Figure 8–13

the tibia47
The Tibia
  • Also called the shinbone
  • Supports body weight
  • Larger than fibula
  • Medial to fibula
  • Tibial Tuberosity
    • Attachment for the

ligamentum patellae

the fibula
The Fibula
  • Attaches muscles of
    • feet and toes
  • Smaller than tibia
  • Lateral to tibia

The fibula neither participates in the knee join nor bears weight. When it is fractured, however, walking becomes difficult. Why?

Fibula helps stabilize the ankle joint.

Fibula attaches many leg muscles.

Both A and B.

None of the above.

the ankle
The Ankle
  • Also called the tarsus:
    • consists of 7 tarsal bones
  • Talus:
    • carries weight from tibia across trochlea
  • Calcaneus (heel bone):
    • transfers weight from talus to ground
    • attaches Achilles tendon

Figure 8–14a

feet arches
Feet: Arches
  • Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another

Figure 8–14b


While jumping off the back steps at his house, 10-year-old Joey lands on his right heel and breaks his foot. Which foot bone is most likely broken?



navicular bone

first metatarsal bone


Which foot bone transmits the weight of the body from the tibia toward the toes?


navicular bone

cuboid bone



Which foot bone transmits the weight of the body from the tibia toward the toes?


navicular bone

cuboid bone


key concept
  • Pectoral girdle is highly mobile, stabilized primarily by muscles
  • Pelvic girdle is more massive, stronger, and less mobile
studying the skeleton
Studying the Skeleton
  • Reveals characteristics:
    • muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass)
    • medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures)
    • sex and age (bone measurements and fusion)
    • body size
  • Components of the:
    • appendicular skeleton
    • pectoral girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton
    • upper limbs, and relationship to pectoral girdle
  • Components of the:
    • pelvic girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton
    • lower limbs, and relationship to pelvic girdle
  • Differences between male and female pelvises
  • Individual skeletal variations
  • Effects of aging