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CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

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CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System. Appendicular Skeleton. Axial Skeleton. “Skeleton” means “dried up body” in Greek. Skeletal System = bones of the skeleton, joints, cartilages, and ligaments. Skeleton is divided into two sections: Axial skeleton = bones of longitudinal axis

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slide1

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Appendicular Skeleton

Axial Skeleton

“Skeleton” means “dried up body” in Greek.

Skeletal System =

bones of the skeleton, joints, cartilages, and ligaments.

Skeleton is divided into two sections:

Axial skeleton = bones of longitudinal axis

Appendicular skeleton = bones of limbs and girdles

slide2

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

  • Functions of Bones
  • Support (internal framework)
  • Protection (of organs)
  • Movement (with skeletal muscles)
  • Storage (fat, minerals – especially calcium and phosphorus)
    • Calcium comes and goes from bones continually as it is needed in the blood.
  • Blood Cell Formation (hematopoiesis) occurs in bone marrow
slide3

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

  • Classification of Bones
  • Compact Bone = dense, smooth, homogeneous
  • Spongy Bone = made of small needlelike pieces of bone and open spaces
slide4

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

  • Classification of Bones
  • Long Bones
    • Longer than wideHead at each endMostly compact bone
    • Limb bones
slide5

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

  • Classification of Bones
  • Short Bones
    • Cube-shapedSpongy bone
    • Ex. Wrist and ankle
slide6

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

  • Classification of Bones
  • Flat Bones
    • Thin, flattened, usually curved.
    • Two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching spongy bone.
    • Ex. Skull, ribs, and sternum.
slide7

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

  • Classification of Bones
  • Irregular Bones
    • Don’t fit into other categories.
    • Ex. Vertebrae, hip bones.
slide8

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Structure of a Long Bone

Gross Anatomy (See TXT pg 114 Fig 5.2)

Diaphysis = shaft

Periosteum = covers shaftSharpy’s Fibers = hold periosteum to bone

Epiphyses = ends of boneArticular cartilage = covers epiphyses

Epiphyseal line = only in adults

Epiphyseal plate = growth portion in youth

slide9

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Structure of a Long Bone

Gross Anatomy (See TXT pg 114 Fig 5.2)

Red Marrow

Infants: forms blood cells Adults: only in spongy bone

of flat bones.

Yellow Marrow

Adults only.

slide10

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Structure of a Long Bone

Gross Anatomy (See TXT pg 115 Table 5.1)

Bone Markings Categories:

Projections (Processes)

Grows out from bone surface.

Depressions (Cavities)

Indentations into the bone.

slide11

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Microscopic Anatomy

(See TXT pg 116 Fig 5.3)

Canals connect all tissues

Circles of lacunae

Lamellae surround it

Central canal + matrix rings

Communication pathway

Cavities in matrix

Mature bone cells

slide12

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Bone Growth

(See TXT pg 117 Fig 5.4)

For this slide, you will receive a handout that accompanies the skeletal system interactive video. Vocabulary will be included in the handout.

Skeletal System Interactivehttp://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=B7D2D569-417F-454B-8490-4681832950A5&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

Bone Growth

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter6/animation__bone_growth_in_width.html

slide13

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Fractures

(See TXT pg 119 Table 5.2)

Types of Bone Fractureshttp://video.about.com/orthopedics/Fractures-2.htm

slide14

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Fractures

More Fractures online…

Click-on Fracture Animations http://www.argosymedical.com/Skeletal/index.html

slide15

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System

Fractures

Reduction = repair of fractures.

Emergency procedures for broken bones http://www.argosymedical.com/Skeletal/samples/animations/Broken%20Bone/index.html

slide17

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

(See TXT pg 120 Fig 5.5)

  • Stages of Healing:
  • Hematoma
  • Soft Callus
  • Bony Callus
  • Remodeling
slide18

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

(See TXT pg 121 Fig 5.6)

Axial Skeleton:

Skull

Vertebral column

Bony thorax

slide19

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

(See TXT pg 122 Fig 5.7)

The SKULL

Laterial View

of the Skull

slide20

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Ancient man following skull surgery.

Other Lateral Views

of Skull

This weird looking skull is the famous Starchild Skull that was found in 1930. The Starchild Skull was discovered in a mine tunnel about 100 miles southwest of Chihuahua, Mexico along with several other normal skeletons.

100,000-year-old skull was found in a cave in Qafzeh, Israel,

slide21

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Anterior View of the Skull

slide22

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

More Anterior Views of Skulls

8-13 yr old boy

slide23

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Sinus = air filled cavity

Process = projection

Foramen = hole or opening

Suture = immovable fibrous joints between bones

Condyle = rounded projection at the end of a bone that articulates with another bone

Paranasal Sinuses

slide24

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Hyoid Bone

Not part of skull.

Only bone that does

not interact directly

with another bone.

Suspended and

anchored by

ligaments.

Moveable base for

tongue.

Attachment point for

swallowing.

Aids in speech.

slide25

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Fetal Skull

Face is small compared to cranium.

Skull overall is large for the body.

Cranial bones connected by fontanels which harden post partem.

http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/quiz/practice/u5/quiztop5.htm

slide26

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Vertebral Column

Also called spine.

Before birth = 33 vertebrae

After birth = 24 vertebrae

slide27

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Vertebral Column

Separated into 5 major sections:

Cervical (neck)

Thoracic (mid back)

Lumbar (lower back)

Sacrum (top of tail)

Coccyx (tail bone)

Scoliosis Animation

http://www.spine-health.com/video/scoliosis-video-what-scoliosis

slide28

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Vertebral Column

Intervertebral discs = separate vertebrae

90% water

Dries as ages.

Herniated discs results from drying and weakening of ligaments holding discs in place.

Herniated disc animation

http://www.spine-health.com/video/lumbar-herniated-disc-video

slide29

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Vertebral Column

S-shaped structure

Provides flexibility

and prevents shock

to the brain

Primary curvatures

formed at birth

Thoracic and Sacral

Secondary curvatures

cervical – when baby begins raising head

lumbar – when baby begin walking

slide30

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Vertebral Foramen

Body

Weight bearing

Pedicle

Superior Articular Process

Transverse Process

Vertebral Arch

Lamina

Thoracic Vertebra

Spinous Process

slide31

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

1st Vertebra: Atlas

Has no body Holds occipital

condyles of skull

Allows nodding =

“yes”

2nd Vertebra: Axis Acts as pivot for

rotation of skull

Allows side-to-side

motion = “no”

Dens: Pivot point

Cervical Vertebra

slide32

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Thoracic Vertebra

Supports ribs.

slide33

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Lumbar Vertebra

Block-like body.

Most of stress on spine occurs in lumbar region.

slide34

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Sacrum

Formed by fusion of 5 vertebrae.

Alae = articulates with hip bones.

Formed by fusion of 3 vertebrae.

“Tailbone”

Coccyx

slide35

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Bony Thorax

Ribs:

True Ribs: 1st 7 ribs

Attach to sternum.

False Ribs: Last 5 ribs

Attach indirectly to sternum or not attached at all.

Last 2 false ribs are “floating ribs” – unattached.

slide36

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

Bony Thorax

Sternum:

Manubrium ProcessBody

Xiphoid process

easily broken during

CPR

slide37

CHAPTER 5A The Skeletal System / Bones

TEST TIME!

CH 5 AXIAL SKELETON