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3.2 Molecules of Life (Show PPT w/clips) What four main classes of organic compounds are essential to life processes? carbs lipids proteins nucleic acids. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates include: Small sugar molecules in soft drinks Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes.

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slide1

3.2 Molecules of Life

  • (Show PPT w/clips)
  • What four main classes of organic compounds are essential to life processes?
  • carbs
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • nucleic acids
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates include:
  • Small sugar molecules in soft drinks
  • Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes
slide3

Carbohydrates tend to have the ratio of 1C:2H:1O

-monosaccharides is a carb monomer.

This simple sugar is 1:2:1 and the general formula is (CH2O)n

n is a whole number from 3 to 8

So, (CH2O)6 = C6H12O6

The most common sugars/monosaccharides are:

cellular fuel
Cellular Fuel
  • Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work

ATP

monosaccharides
Monosaccharides:
  • Called simple sugars

Include glucose, fructose, & galactose

Have the same chemical, but different structural formulas

C6H12O6

slide6

Glucose=cell energy

Fructose=fruit sugar

Galactose=milk sugar

All three have the same formula but have difference structures. These are known as Isomers pg 55

monosaccharides1
Monosaccharides
  • Glucose is found in sports drinks

Fructose is found in fruits

Honey contains both glucose & fructose

Galactose is called “milk sugar”

isomers
Isomers
  • Glucose & fructose are isomers because they’re structures are different, but their chemical formulas are the same
slide9
Disaccharide is 2 monomers in a condensation reaction. Fruc. + Gluc. = Sucrose.
  • Polysaccharide is complex with 3 or more monosaccharides.
disaccharides
Disaccharides
  • A disaccharide is a double sugar

They’re made by joining two monosaccharides

Involves removing a water molecule (dehydration)

disaccharides1
Disaccharides
  • Common disaccharides include:
  • Sucrose (table sugar)
  • Lactose (Milk Sugar)
  • Maltose (Grain sugar)
disaccharides2
Disaccharides
  • Sucrose is composed of glucose + fructose

Maltose is composed of 2 glucose molecules

Lactose is made of galactose + glucose

GLUCOSE

starch
Starch
  • Starch is an example of a polysaccharide in plants

Plant cells store starch for energy

Potatoes and grains are major sources of starch in the human diet

glycogen
Glycogen
  • Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide in animals

Animals store excess sugar in the form of glycogen

Glycogen is similar in structure to starch

proteins
Proteins-
  • organic compounds composed mainly of C,H,O, & N
  • Proteins are formed from amino acids linked together.
  • 20 diff. Amino acids. Amino acids have basically the same structure except their R group. See page 56.
slide16
Q- The R groups give proteins their different shapes. What do the different shapes allow it to do?
  • Two amino acids = Dipeptides
  • Long amino chains = Polypeptides
  • Condensation reaction of two or more amino acids yields a peptide bond and a water molecule release.
proteins1
Proteins
  • Proteins are polymers made of monomers called amino acids

All proteins are made of 20 different amino acids linked in different orders

Proteins are used to build cells, act as hormones & enzymes, and do much of the work in a cell

four types of proteins
Four Types of Proteins

Storage

Structural

Contractile

Transport

denaturating proteins
Denaturating Proteins

Changes in temperature & pH can denature (unfold) a protein so it no longer works

Cooking denatures protein in eggs

Milk protein separates into curds & whey when it denatures

enzymes
ENZYMES
  • ENZYMES- RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts. Enzymes are specific to the substrate that they will fit.
  • The enzyme reduces the activation energy needed by weakening or breaking bonds. Changes in pH, Temp, etc may cause the enzyme to not be as effective.
proteins as enzymes
Proteins as Enzymes
  • Many proteins act as biological catalysts or enzymes

Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body

Enzymes control the rate of chemical reactions by weakening bonds, thus lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction

enzymes1
Enzymes

Enzymes are globular proteins.

Their folded conformation creates an area known as the active site.

The nature and arrangement of amino acids in the active site make it specific for only one type of substrate.

lipids
LIPIDS
  • LIPIDS- large, nonpolar molecules that do not dissolve in water. They include Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids, Waxes, and Pigments.
  • These have a higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen to oxygen that carbs do. Because of this high ratio of C-H bonds, they store more energy.
slide25

FATTY ACIDS- unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids. These have long carbon chains with a –COOH carboxyl group.

  • Due to the –COOH polarity, it is Hydrophilic or attracted to water molecules and the opposite end is Hydrophobic. Pg 59
  • Q-What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
types of fatty acids
Types of Fatty Acids
  • Unsaturated fatty acidshave less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons (a double bond between carbons)

Saturated fatty acidshave the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons (all single bonds between carbons)

types of fatty acids1
Types of Fatty Acids

Single Bonds in Carbon chain

Double bond in carbon chain

triglyceride
Triglyceride
  • Monomer of lipids

Composed of Glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains

Glycerol forms the “backbone” of the fat

Organic Alcohol

slide29

TRIGLYCERIDES-saturated=butter and fats-unsaturated =found in plant seeds for germination

  • Triglycerides- composed of three molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of the alcohol glycerol.
fats in organisms
Fats in Organisms
  • Most animal fats have a high proportion of saturated fatty acids & exist as solids at room temperature (butter, margarine, shortening)
fats in organisms1
Fats in Organisms
  • Most plant oils tend to be low in saturated fatty acids & exist as liquids at room temperature (oils)
slide32
Fats
  • Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride composed of glycerol and three fatty acid chains

Fatty Acid Chain

Glycerol

Dehydration links the fatty acids to Glycerol

slide33

FAT SUBSTITUTES were approved by the FDA in 1996. It passes through the body without being digested or absorbed. For some, it created cramps, diarrhea, and loss of fat-soluble vitamins and betacarotene. Try to weigh the benefits of this against the side effects. What do you think?

slide35

PHOSPHOLIPIDS-have 2 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol. How is this different than Triglycerides? They have a phosphate group attached to the third carbon of the glycerol. Our cells have a cell membrane that is composed of two layers of phospholipids called the LIPID BILAYER. It acts like a club bouncer and only allows certain things in and out of the cell. Pg 59.

slide36

WAXES-a type of structural lipid that is a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain. They are waterproof. What benefits do plants have by having a cuticle that is a waxy layer on its leaves? Why do we have earwax?

steroids
STEROIDS
  • STEROIDS- composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups. We have natural steroids in our body.
  • It is not just what sports players use.
  • What are our natural steroids?
steroids1
Steroids
  • The carbon skeleton of steroids is bent to form 4 fused rings

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids

Estrogen

Testosterone

Estrogen & testosterone are also steroids

slide39
Cholesterol Clip

http://lovemymuscles.com/features/articles/anabolic-steroids/

synthetic anabolic steroids
Synthetic Anabolic Steroids
  • They are variants of testosterone

Some athletes use them to build up their muscles quickly

They can pose serious health risks

nucleic acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS-
  • complex organic molecules found in our DNA and RNA.
  • RNA can also act like an enzyme.
  • DNA and RNA are polymers with thousands of monomers called nucleotides. They contain a phosphate group, five carbon sugar, and ring shaped nitrogen base.
nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids
  • Store hereditary information

Contain information for making all the body’s proteins

Two types exist --- DNA & RNA

nucleic acids2
Nucleic Acids

Nitrogenous base

(A,G,C, or T)

Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides

Phosphate

group

Thymine (T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)

Phosphate

Base

Sugar

Nucleotide

bases
Bases
  • Each DNA nucleotide has one of the following bases:

Thymine (T)

Cytosine (C)

  • Adenine (A)
  • Guanine (G)
  • Thymine (T)
  • Cytosine (C)

Adenine (A)

Guanine (G)