Biological Molecules Can Have Complicated Structures DNA Protein How complicated are living things? Even a bacterium is made up of at least 10,000 different kinds of molecules. But these fall into 4 classes of organic molecules. 4 Kinds of Organic Molecules
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Even a bacterium is made up of at least 10,000 different kinds of molecules.
But these fall into 4 classes of organic molecules.
are chemically active
Polysaccharides held together by weak bonds are used for energy storage (e.g., starch), whereas those held together by strong bonds are used or structural purposes (e.g., cellulose)
Note: carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativities and will form non-polar covalent bonds
(proteins with carbohydrate antennae)
rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The peptide bond is surrounded by two important charges
4 proteins (chains)
under oxygen stress
valine replaces glutamate
hemoglobin polymerizes, forming long rods that distort the cell
3D shapes have specific cavities on their surfacethese cavities allow “lock and key” fits with other molecules with which the protein interact
What is the significance of complicated shapes?Numerous weak bonds among complementary complex surfaces allow molecular recognition and catalysis.
to form new complementary
DNA is double stranded
cannot be catalytic
RNA is single stranded
can be catalytic (ribozymes)
Single strandedness can confer complicated 3D shapes that permit catalytic roles
each kind of molecule is an unbranched sequence of subunits
nucelotide sequences are colinear with the amino acid sequences that they code for