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ANCIENT EGYPT and NUBIA Ch. 4 Sect. I. SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE.

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  1. ANCIENT EGYPTand NUBIACh. 4 Sect. I SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE.

  2. Kush, the Egyptian name for ancient Nubia, was the site of a highly advanced, ancient black African civilization that rivaled ancient Egypt in wealth, power and cultural development. Ancient Nubia

  3. SECTION 1 The Egyptian and Nubian Empires Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt Invaders • About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, use chariots to conquer Egypt Hebrews Migrate to Egypt • Hebrews move to Egypt from Canaan around 1650 B.C. • Egyptians resent the presence of Hebrews and Hyksos in Egypt Expulsion and Slavery • Egyptians drive out the hated Hyksos • Hebrews lose protection of Hyksos; are enslaved NEXT

  4. SECTION 1 The New Kingdom of Egypt Technological Changes • About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create New Kingdom, a powerful empire • Army uses bronze weapons and chariots to conquer other lands Image Image Continued . . . NEXT

  5. Event 1 1472 B.C. Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule • Hatshepsut—pharaoh whose reign most noted for her trade expeditions, not war Opened trade in Punt (modern day Somalia)

  6. SECTION 1 continued The New Kingdom of Egypt Thutmose the Empire Builder • Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s stepson, expands Egypt’s empire • Invades Palestine, Syria, and Nubia—region around the upper Nile River • Egypt most powerful and wealthy during reign of New Kingdom pharoahs Image Continued . . . NEXT

  7. SECTION 1 Event 2 1285 B.C. The Egyptians and the Hittites • Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the Hittites in Palestine • Egypt’s pharaoh, Ramses II, and the Hittite king sign a peace treaty Image NEXT

  8. Event 3 1290-1224 B.C. An Age of Builders • New Kingdom pharaohs built great palaces, magnificent temples • Valley of the Kings near Thebes is home to royal tombs • Ramses II builds impressive temples with enormous statues of himself

  9. Ramses II

  10. Event 4 1200 B.C. Invasion by Land and Sea • “Sea Peoples” (possibly Philistines) cause great destruction in Egypt • Libyan raids on villages and Palestine rebellions weaken empire

  11. SECTION 1 Event 6 950-730 B.C. Egypt’s Empire Fades • Weakened empire breaks into smaller kingdoms • From around 950 to 730 B.C. Libyan pharaohs rule Egypt, erect cities NEXT

  12. Around 730 B.C., Kush's warrior hordes turned the tables on a weakened Egypt and conquered it. • This event established the black Pharaohs from Kush. Kush Conquers Egypt, 730 BC

  13. SECTION 1 The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region Egypt and Kush • From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominates kingdom of Kush in Nubia, but as Egypt fell into decline Kush began to emerge as a regional power Map The People of Nubia • Live south of Egypt near division of Blue Nile and White Nile • Nile River is a great trade route for goods and ideas • Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to African interior through trade Continued . . . NEXT

  14. SECTION 1 continued The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region Image Event 5 1200 B.C. The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia • Egyptian culture influences Nubia and beyond to southern Africa • About 1200 B.C., Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian culture NEXT

  15. Event 7 751 B.C. Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne • In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi conquers Egypt, ousts Libyans • Assyrians overcome Kushites and take Egypt

  16. Model coffin of Tutankhamun, probably made from Nubian gold. Found in his tomb at Thebes. Egypt, Dynasty 18, ca. 1348-1338 BCE. • For the next four centuries, the Egyptians exploited Kush as a colony. • Egypt's wealth in gold came from the desert mines of Kush. The Egyptian word for gold is nub, which is thought by some to be the origin of the name Nubia. Gold from Nubia

  17. Piankhi • Piankhi, (d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. • He ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia.

  18. Piankhi’s dynasty proved to be short lived. In 671B.C. the Assyrians, warlike people from Southwest Asia, conquered Egypt. Event 8 671 B.C.

  19. SECTION 1 The Golden Age of Meroë • Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with Africa, Arabia, India The Wealth of Kush • Meroë becomes important center for iron weapons and tools • Iron products transported to Red Sea, exchanged for luxury goods The Decline of Meroë • Meroë thrives from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150, then declines • Aksum, 400 miles southeast, dominates North African trade • Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in A.D. 350 NEXT

  20. Black Pharoahs ruled an Egyptian-Nubian empire that extended from the Medi-terranean to the confluence of the Blue and White Niles for sixty years. • Historians would count their reign as Egypt's 25th Dynasty. 25th Dynasty of Egypt

  21. Ancient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River that reached its greatest extent in the second millennium BC during the New Kingdom. Ancient Egypt

  22. The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3 to 6) was a period of great prosperity and innovation whose most memorable feature was surely the pyramid. • Pyramids of Giza Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.–2184 B.C.)

  23. Temple of Ramses II • Dynasty 18 through Dynasty 20, known as the New Kingdom, witnessed a time of international prestige and prosperity for Egypt. • The kings of this period conducted extensive military, diplomatic and trade relations with Nubians as far south as the Fourth Cataract in Nubia. New Kingdom (1570 B.C.–1070 B.C.)

  24. 1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide Overview •Hyksos •New Kingdom •Hatshepsut •Thutmose III •Nubia •Ramses II •Kush •Piankhi •Meroë WHY IT MATTERS NOW Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections. Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict. Assessment

  25. 1 1 Section Assessment 1570 B.C. A.D. 350 Egyptian New Kingdom Aksum defeats Meroë. HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List important events in the history of Egypt and Kush. 1285 B.C. Battle of Kadesh 1200 B.C. People of the Sea attack Egypt. 950-730 B.C. Libyans rule Egypt. 1472 B.C. Hatshepsut makes herself pharaoh. 1290-1224 B.C. Ramses II rules. 1100 B.C.Kush regains independence. 671 B.C.Kushites lose Egypt to Assyrians. continued . . .

  26. 1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Section Assessment 2. Read the temple inscription written by Piankhi. Explain how an Egyptian might have written the inscription differently.THINK ABOUT •what bias Piankhi had ANSWER •how Egyptians benefited from Piankhi’s invasion •why Egyptians might have disagreed with Piankhi An Egyptian might have praised the Kushites for restoring the Egyptian way of life or criticized them for ruling in place of Egyptians. Possible Response: continued . . .

  27. 1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Section Assessment 3. How did Egypt and Nubia strengthen each other at various times in their histories?THINK ABOUT • the role of trade and the movement of goods • the impact of military movements • the influence of cultural developments ANSWER • Under Thutmose III, Egyptians brought gold, cattle, ivory, and slaves from Nubia. • Under Egyptian control, Nubian princes adopted much of Egyptian culture. • When Nubians seized power over Egypt, they tried to restore the Egyptian way of life. Possible Responses: End of Section 1

  28. What Social class would you find at the top of the pyramid?

  29. Pharaoh

  30. Pharaoh Upper Class Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles

  31. Pharaoh Upper Class Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles Merchants and skilled workers Middle Class

  32. Pharaoh Upper Class Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles Merchants and skilled workers Middle Class Not a very large class. They farmed and built roads & temples. Peasants

  33. New Empire Semitic-speaking people who exploited the use of iron weapons to build an empire by 700 B.C. Territory Including Mesopotamia, some of the Iranian Plateau, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Semitic-Speaking Spoke Semitic language

  34. Semitic Language

  35. Military Strength The Assyrian military was one of the strongest in the ancient world. They used fierce iron weapons and psychological warfare. The Assyrians would often attempt to get an area to surrender before attack. If people refused and were defeated they were treated harshly. King Ashurbanipal once stated “3,000 of their combat troops I felled with weapons . . . Many I took alive; from some of these I cut off their hands to the wrists, from others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out the eyes of many of the soldiers. . . . I burned their young men and women to death.”

  36. Soldiers were well equipped for conquering. • They wore copper or iron helmets, padded loin-clothes and leather skirts with metal scales • Iron swords and spears • Advanced planning: used pontoons to support a bridge to cross over • They dug beneath the enemies city walls to weaken them. • Some soldiers would shoot arrows while the rest would hammer the city’s gates. Military Organization

  37. Assyrian Rulers Assyrian kings ruled with absolute power. Kingdoms were well organized and efficient. Kept direct contact with the people who helped administer their empire Transportation/Courier system They est. a system where they could relay messages by horseback back and forth in a week’s time. Ashurbanipal Considered the greatest Assyrian King. He collected the writings of Mesopotamia and est. the great library of Nineveh

  38. Nineveh

  39. Nineveh an "exceeding great city", as it is called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris in ancient Assyria, near the modern-day major city of Mosul, Iraq which lies across the river.

  40. The Assyrian empire eventually fell and the Chaldeans (Neo Babylonians) under king Nebuchadnezzar made Babylon the most powerful state in the region. Nebuchadnezzar is most famous for the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Nebuchadnezzar is also responsible for the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem and beginning the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews and the first Diaspora. Babylon is defeated and replaced by the Persian Empire in 539 B.C.

  41. Cyrus the Great Persian King who defeated Babylon and ended the Jews’ captivity. Cyrus ruled from 559 to 530 B.C. and was a great leader, hence the name Cyrus the Great. Ruling Style He was very respectful of other cultures. Not only did he free the Jews, but he also treated conquered people fairly. He allowed them to keep their own religions and customs. This respect made the people who lived under him respectful of his rule and less likely to revolt.

  42. Cyrus' tomb lies in the ruins of Pasargadae, now a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site (2006).

  43. Expansion of Empire under Darius I Ruled from 521-486 B.C. added western India to the Persian Empire. Then added Thrace in Europe and expanded the Empire to its greatest size. He also brought the Persian Empire into conflict with the Greeks. Satrapies Darius divided his empire into provinces called Satrapies to make it more manageable. Each province was ruled by a governor called a Satrap. This man was the protector of the kingdom. They collected taxes, provided justice and security, and got soldiers for the army.

  44. The Royal Road The Royal road stretched from Lydia to Susa, the chief capital of the empire. It used a system of couriers similar to the Assyrians. This allowed for efficient communication in the empire Persian Military The Persians had an elite military. It contained people from all over the Persian Empire. The Immortals The Elite fighters of the Persian Empire. They were so called because in battle their numbers were never allowed to fall below 10,000 men. They were constantly replaced from behind so they appeared to never die.

  45. Persian kings became greedy; weakening the empire. Family spats and assassinations became the rule of the day. The Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great during the 330’s B.C.

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