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Chapter 4: Ancient Egypt and Nubia. Section 2 Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt. Section 2 Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt. Important Vocabulary Hieroglyphic: a drawing or symbol that represents a word or a sound Papyrus: a material very similar to paper

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chapter 4 ancient egypt and nubia

Chapter 4: Ancient Egypt and Nubia

Section 2

Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt

section 2 art architecture and learning in egypt

Section 2Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt

Important Vocabulary

Hieroglyphic: a drawing or symbol that represents a word or a sound

Papyrus: a material very similar to paper

pyramid: a structure with triangular sides

sculpture: a statue or other free-standing piece of art made of clay, stone, or other materials

Anatomy: the study of the structure of the body and its organs

important information arts architecture and learning in egypt
Important InformationArts, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
  • Ancient Egyptians invented early forms of writing by 3200 BC
  • Egyptians used hieroglyphics as their form of writing. (There were over 800 different hieroglyphics that represented words, ideas, or sounds)
  • Scribes or officials were usually the ones that knew how to write in Egyptians society and were valued for their knowledge
  • Egyptians were able to preserve and share knowledge with writing. This made it a complex civilization and helped advance technology.
  • Egyptians invented a material called papyrus (similar to paper)
    • It was made from the papyrus reed that grew along the Nile River
    • Our word paper comes from the word papyrus
    • The invention of papyrus helped because it was much easier to carry around papyrus than pieces of clay
slide4

Papyrus sheets could last a very long time in the dry environment of Egypt.

    • Some documents written on papyrus included: medical books, calendars, stories, poems, and prayers
  • The Book of the Dead was a guide to the afterlife for dead souls.
  • Egyptians created temples for their gods and tombs for their pharaohs.
  • The temple complex at Karnak contains the ruins of the world’s largest temples.
  • Tombs of the early rulers were underground chambers, or rooms. The chamber contained items the ruler may want in the afterlife.
  • Imhotep designed a new kind of tomb for his pharaoh with six stone mounds that resulted in a step pyramid.
slide5

During the Old Kingdom, three pyramids were built at Giza for King Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.

  • The Sphinx stands guard to Khafre’s pyramid.
  • These pyramids were the largest buildings on earth at the time
  • Pyramid building ended about 2200 BC. Pharaohs who rules after this carved massive tombs from the cliffs at the edge of the Nile Valley.
  • Much of what we know about Egypt comes from the paintings found on the walls or tombs.
  • The purpose of the painting were to provide the person buried with all the objects and pleasures shown on the walls
  • Sculptures were also created by artists.
    • If a mummy was destroyed, the statue could replace it as a home for the dead person’s spirit
slide6

The ancient Egyptians wanted to keep the seasons linked to the seasons to help farmers plan when to plant and harvest

  • They noticed the bright star of Sirius appeared above the horizon around the time of the Nile floods.
  • The Egyptians created a solar calendar with exactly 365 days.
    • Later on, the Greeks added a leap year when they ruled Egypt in the 200s.
  • The construction of the great pyramids shows their mastery of engineering.
  • They made the earliest discoveries in chemistry.
  • They invented complex systems of irrigation.
  • They also had the most advanced medical knowledge of their time. From their work with mummies, they learned about human anatomy.
section 3 egypt and nubia

Section 3Egypt and Nubia

Important Vocabulary

commerce: buying and selling of goods and services

ivory: a hard white material made from elephant tusks

interdependence: dependence by each country or group on the other

Meroitic script: the world’s first alphabets created by the Nubians

ebony: a black wood from West Africa

slide8

The region south of Egypt, farther up the Nile River is known today as the region of Nubia. It extends into northern Sudan

  • Egypt lacked forests, minerals, horses, and many natural resources found in Nubia.
    • Ancient Egypt were able to get these resources through trade (commerce)
  • Pharaohs sent merchants to other lands to promote trade.
    • Egyptians imported cedar wood from modern day Lebanon.
    • In the Mediterranean, they imported olive oil, tin, and copper.
  • The most valuable goods that were bought in Nubia were gold and elephant tusks (ivory)
    • In return, they sold grain, cloth, papyrus, glass, and jewelry
    • Egypt relied on Nubia’s gold and Nubia relied on Egypt’s grain (interdependence)
  • Because of trade, Nubia adopted elements of Egyptian culture
  • Nubia had much less land than Egypt to farm; therefore this sometimes cause a shortage of food. This made them trade gold, iron, and other products for Egypt’s grain
slide9

The Nubians also traded with people south of the Sahara.

  • Through trade, the Egyptians realized that Nubia was rich in resources including gold.
  • Egypt conquered most of Nubia for a time during the Middle Kingdom and again during the New Kingdom.
  • The Nubians had to pay tribute to the pharaoh.
  • In the mid-700s BC, a Nubian king conquered the Egyptian city of Thebes. Piye expanded the Nubian empire by conquering one Egyptian city after another.
  • Pharaohs from Nubia ruled Egypt for almost 100 years
  • After failing to conquer the Assyrians, the Nubians retreated from Egypt to Nubia
  • The Egyptians destroyed the old capital of Nubia.
    • Meroe became the new capital of Nubia
  • Meroe’s location on trade routes allowed it to become wealthy and powerful for trade
slide10

Nubians built hundreds of pyramids at Napata and Meroe. They were built at a steep angle unlike the pyramids of Egypt.

    • They held the tombs of the kings and the queen mothers of Nubia
    • Queen-mothers (candaces) were sometimes more powerful than kings throughout the history of Nubia
  • The Nubians created the world’s first alphabets.
    • Scholars still don’t understand the words of the language written in it
  • The Nubian kingdom may have controlled a larger area than the Egyptian empire.
  • They traded with many empires around the area including the Greeks, Romans, and African people.
    • They traded with countries as far away as India
  • Finally in the 300s AD, Nubia was conquered by the kingdom of Aksum
  • The Nubians created patterns of trade and farming that continued after the conquest of Aksum and have continued in the region to this day.