CHAPTER 4 Chapter Overview HOME First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. A series of empires, each one bigger than the last, forges regional unity among the old heartlands of civilization from the Nile to the Iranian Plateau. Meanwhile, the Chinese Empire emerges as a cultural and political unit.
CHAPTER 4 HOME First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. Time Line 206 B.C.The Qin Dynasty of China collapses. Civil War follows. 1544 B.C.Egypt’s New Kingdom established. 751 B.C.Nubian kingdom of Kush conquers Egypt. 1570 B.C. 200 B.C. 850 B.C.Assyrian Empire begins its rise to power. 550 B.C.Persian Empire flourishes under Cyrus.
1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide Key Idea The New Kingdom forges a brilliant Egyptian Empire, which is eventually conquered and ruled by the Nubians of Kush. The Kushites later establish an Egyptian-style kingdom of their own farther south.
Kush, the Egyptian name for ancient Nubia, was the site of a highly advanced, ancient black African civilization that rivaled ancient Egypt in wealth, power and cultural development. Ancient Nubia
SECTION 1 The Egyptian and Nubian Empires Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt Invaders • About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, use chariots to conquer Egypt Hebrews Migrate to Egypt • Hebrews move to Egypt from Canaan around 1650 B.C. • Egyptians resent the presence of Hebrews and Hyksos in Egypt Expulsion and Slavery • Egyptians drive out the hated Hyksos • Hebrews lose protection of Hyksos; are enslaved NEXT
SECTION 1 The New Kingdom of Egypt Technological Changes • About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create New Kingdom, a powerful empire • Army uses bronze weapons and chariots to conquer other lands Image Image Continued . . . NEXT
Event 1 1472 B.C. Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule • Hatshepsut—pharaoh whose reign most noted for her trade expeditions, not war Opened trade in Punt (modern day Somalia)
SECTION 1 continued The New Kingdom of Egypt Thutmose the Empire Builder • Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s stepson, expands Egypt’s empire • Invades Palestine, Syria, and Nubia—region around the upper Nile River • Egypt most powerful and wealthy during reign of New Kingdom pharoahs Image Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 1 Event 2 1285 B.C. The Egyptians and the Hittites • Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the Hittites in Palestine • Egypt’s pharaoh, Ramses II, and the Hittite king sign a peace treaty Image NEXT
Event 3 1290-1224 B.C. An Age of Builders • New Kingdom pharaohs built great palaces, magnificent temples • Valley of the Kings near Thebes is home to royal tombs • Ramses II builds impressive temples with enormous statues of himself
Event 4 1200 B.C. Invasion by Land and Sea • “Sea Peoples” (possibly Philistines) cause great destruction in Egypt • Libyan raids on villages and Palestine rebellions weaken empire
SECTION 1 Event 6 950-730 B.C. Egypt’s Empire Fades • Weakened empire breaks into smaller kingdoms • From around 950 to 730 B.C. Libyan pharaohs rule Egypt, erect cities NEXT
Around 730 B.C., Kush's warrior hordes turned the tables on a weakened Egypt and conquered it. • This event established the black Pharaohs from Kush. Kush Conquers Egypt, 730 BC
SECTION 1 The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region Egypt and Kush • From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominates kingdom of Kush in Nubia, but as Egypt fell into decline Kush began to emerge as a regional power Map The People of Nubia • Live south of Egypt near division of Blue Nile and White Nile • Nile River is a great trade route for goods and ideas • Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to African interior through trade Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 1 continued The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region Image Event 5 1200 B.C. The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia • Egyptian culture influences Nubia and beyond to southern Africa • About 1200 B.C., Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian culture NEXT
Event 7 751 B.C. Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne • In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi conquers Egypt, ousts Libyans • Assyrians overcome Kushites and take Egypt
Model coffin of Tutankhamun, probably made from Nubian gold. Found in his tomb at Thebes. Egypt, Dynasty 18, ca. 1348-1338 BCE. • For the next four centuries, the Egyptians exploited Kush as a colony. • Egypt's wealth in gold came from the desert mines of Kush. The Egyptian word for gold is nub, which is thought by some to be the origin of the name Nubia. Gold from Nubia
Piankhi • Piankhi, (d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. • He ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia.
Piankhi’s dynasty proved to be short lived. In 671B.C. the Assyrians, warlike people from Southwest Asia, conquered Egypt. Event 8 671 B.C.
SECTION 1 The Golden Age of Meroë • Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with Africa, Arabia, India The Wealth of Kush • Meroë becomes important center for iron weapons and tools • Iron products transported to Red Sea, exchanged for luxury goods The Decline of Meroë • Meroë thrives from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150, then declines • Aksum, 400 miles southeast, dominates North African trade • Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in A.D. 350 NEXT
Black Pharoahs ruled an Egyptian-Nubian empire that extended from the Medi-terranean to the confluence of the Blue and White Niles for sixty years. • Historians would count their reign as Egypt's 25th Dynasty. 25th Dynasty of Egypt
Ancient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River that reached its greatest extent in the second millennium BC during the New Kingdom. Ancient Egypt
The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3 to 6) was a period of great prosperity and innovation whose most memorable feature was surely the pyramid. • Pyramids of Giza Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.–2184 B.C.)
Temple of Ramses II • Dynasty 18 through Dynasty 20, known as the New Kingdom, witnessed a time of international prestige and prosperity for Egypt. • The kings of this period conducted extensive military, diplomatic and trade relations with Nubians as far south as the Fourth Cataract in Nubia. New Kingdom (1570 B.C.–1070 B.C.)
1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide Overview •Hyksos •New Kingdom •Hatshepsut •Thutmose III •Nubia •Ramses II •Kush •Piankhi •Meroë WHY IT MATTERS NOW Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections. Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict. Assessment
1 1 Section Assessment 1570 B.C. A.D. 350 Egyptian New Kingdom Aksum defeats Meroë. HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List important events in the history of Egypt and Kush. 1285 B.C. Battle of Kadesh 1200 B.C. People of the Sea attack Egypt. 950-730 B.C. Libyans rule Egypt. 1472 B.C. Hatshepsut makes herself pharaoh. 1290-1224 B.C. Ramses II rules. 1100 B.C.Kush regains independence. 671 B.C.Kushites lose Egypt to Assyrians. continued . . .
1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Section Assessment 2. Read the temple inscription written by Piankhi. Explain how an Egyptian might have written the inscription differently.THINK ABOUT •what bias Piankhi had ANSWER •how Egyptians benefited from Piankhi’s invasion •why Egyptians might have disagreed with Piankhi An Egyptian might have praised the Kushites for restoring the Egyptian way of life or criticized them for ruling in place of Egyptians. Possible Response: continued . . .
1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Section Assessment 3. How did Egypt and Nubia strengthen each other at various times in their histories?THINK ABOUT • the role of trade and the movement of goods • the impact of military movements • the influence of cultural developments ANSWER • Under Thutmose III, Egyptians brought gold, cattle, ivory, and slaves from Nubia. • Under Egyptian control, Nubian princes adopted much of Egyptian culture. • When Nubians seized power over Egypt, they tried to restore the Egyptian way of life. Possible Responses: End of Section 1
What Social class would you find at the top of the pyramid?
Pharaoh Upper Class Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles
Pharaoh Upper Class Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles Merchants and skilled workers Middle Class
Pharaoh Upper Class Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles Merchants and skilled workers Middle Class Not a very large class. They farmed and built roads & temples. Peasants
New Empire Semitic-speaking people who exploited the use of iron weapons to build an empire by 700 B.C. Territory Including Mesopotamia, some of the Iranian Plateau, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Semitic-Speaking Spoke Semitic language
Military Strength The Assyrian military was one of the strongest in the ancient world. They used fierce iron weapons and psychological warfare. The Assyrians would often attempt to get an area to surrender before attack. If people refused and were defeated they were treated harshly. King Ashurbanipal once stated “3,000 of their combat troops I felled with weapons . . . Many I took alive; from some of these I cut off their hands to the wrists, from others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out the eyes of many of the soldiers. . . . I burned their young men and women to death.”
Soldiers were well equipped for conquering. • They wore copper or iron helmets, padded loin-clothes and leather skirts with metal scales • Iron swords and spears • Advanced planning: used pontoons to support a bridge to cross over • They dug beneath the enemies city walls to weaken them. • Some soldiers would shoot arrows while the rest would hammer the city’s gates. Military Organization
Assyrian Rulers Assyrian kings ruled with absolute power. Kingdoms were well organized and efficient. Kept direct contact with the people who helped administer their empire Transportation/Courier system They est. a system where they could relay messages by horseback back and forth in a week’s time. Ashurbanipal Considered the greatest Assyrian King. He collected the writings of Mesopotamia and est. the great library of Nineveh
Nineveh an "exceeding great city", as it is called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris in ancient Assyria, near the modern-day major city of Mosul, Iraq which lies across the river.
The Assyrian empire eventually fell and the Chaldeans (Neo Babylonians) under king Nebuchadnezzar made Babylon the most powerful state in the region. Nebuchadnezzar is most famous for the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Nebuchadnezzar is also responsible for the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem and beginning the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews and the first Diaspora. Babylon is defeated and replaced by the Persian Empire in 539 B.C.
TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent Overview •Assyria •Sennacherib •Nineveh •Ashurbanipal •Medes •Chaldeans • Nebuchadnezzar WHY IT MATTERS NOW Some leaders still use military force to extend their rule, stamp out opposition, and gain wealth and power. Assyria developed a military machine, conquered an empire, and established imperial administration. Assessment
2 Section Assessment Assyrian Military Power Causes of Increasing Power Causes of Declining Power 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of the rise and of the decline of Assyrian power. Need to defend against attacks Hatred by conquered people Use of iron-working technology Overextension Success at advanced planning Unity among Assyria’s foes continued . . .
Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 2 Section Assessment 2. The Assyrians relied almost exclusively on military power in building, maintaining, and ruling their empire. Explain whether you think this was a good strategy. THINK ABOUT •the causes of Assyrian military power •the stability of the empire •the methods that empires use to become stronger ANSWER Empires often rely on military power. Assyrians relied on a technological advantage that other countries could soon copy and that their brutal methods made them unpopular rulers. Possible Response: End of Section 2