Fashion in History: A Global Look Tutor: Giorgio Riello Week 5 Tuesday 3 November 2009 Fashion in the Renaissance: Power and Behaviour
The Court of Mantua, fresco by Andrea Mantegna. Detail. 1471-74, walnut oil on plaster, 805 x 807 cm, Camera degli Sposi,Palazzo Ducale, Mantua
Raphael, Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, c. 1514-15. Oil on canvas. 82 x 66 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris Raffaello Sanzio, Self Portrait. Oil on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
Titian, Portrait of Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. c.1536-38. Oil on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.
Redundant Renunciation Portrait of Lodovico Capponi, Sixteenth-century aristocrat at the court of the Medici, 1551, by Agnolo Bronzino, Frick Collection, NY. Raffaello Sanzio, Portrait of Lorenzo de’ Medici (1492-1519), Duke of Urbino
Lorenzo Lotto, Portrait of a Man, 1506-10Oil on wood, 42,3 x 35,8 cmKunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Lorenzo Lotto (1480-1556), Portrait of a Gentleman.Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy Titian, A Gentleman (Ludovico Ariosto?). 1510. Oil on canvas. National Gallery London.
The Renaissance Courtier: Principles of Fashion • The wearing of black is not a ‘mundane fashion’ but an ‘ethical fashion’. Black is a ‘moral habit’. • 2. Dress is dominated by the Classical idea of ‘mediocritas’ (‘correct or suitable middle’): a man of virtue must avoid the extremes
Titian, Portrait of Emperor Charles V Seated. 1548. Oil on canvas. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
Portrait of Martin Luther Anonymous. John Calvin. 1550s
Velázquez,Portrait of Phillip IV. c. 1628. Prado Philip II of Spain Philip III of Spain
Attributed to Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, Portrait of Abel Tasman, His Wife and Daughter, c.1637. oil on canvas; 106.7 x 321.1cm. National Library of Australia
Portrait of Johan Camerlin, oil on panel by Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt, 1626. Johannes Verspronk, Portrait of a Lady, 1641
Erasmus De Civilitate MorumPuerilium (The Good Behaviour of Young People) (1532) • - Giovanni della Casa, Galateo (1558)
“You can tell the attitudes and inclinations of people from their comportment… because when a rustic or cowardly person wants to say something seriously, what do you see? He squirms, picks his fingers, strokes his beard, pulls faces, makes eyes and spits every word in three. A noble man, on the contrary, has a clear mind and a gentle posture; he has nothing to be ashamed of. Therefore, in appearance, in his words, and in comportment he is like and eagle which without any fear looks straight at the sun”. Mikolaj Rej, The Mirror, cit. in Maria Bogucka, ‘Gesture, Ritual, and Social Order’, p. 191. Sprezzatura (Grace)
After Tintoretto - Wedding at Cana, Venice, c. 1561-70 Norbert Elias (1897-1990), The civilizing process. Vol. 1: the history of manners [Über den Prozess der Zivilisation] (Oxford: Blackwell, 1978 and following editions).
4. Fashion, Gender and Sex ‘Galenic theory’ from the Philosopher Galenos who lived in the 1st century AD became well known during the renaissance. It argues that there is only one sex: - Men’s genitalia are the “correct” version. - Women are placed in a lower category as their sex was ‘inverted’ (the inversion of men’s genitalia)
4. Fashion, Gender and Sex http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/17century/topic_1/mulier.htm
Will Fisher and Jenny Jordan argues that in the Renaissance the differentiation between genders did not derive from the overall shapes of bodies Gender differentiation derived instead from the ‘prosthetic parts’ of the body.
5. The Concept of Prostheses • Beards • Weapons • Handkerchiefs • Gloves • Jewelry (earrings, necklaces, earrings, etc,) • Fans • Hats • Codpieces • Hair • etc.
Beards Moretto da Brescia (Alessandro Bonvicino) (c. 1498-1554), Portrait of a Gentleman with a Letter, c. 1538. Oil on canvas. 45.08 x 39.37cm. Pinacoteca Civica Tosio-Martinengo, Brescia, Italy.
George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland. Vellum on panel by Nicholas Hilliard c. 1590. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Glove, c. 1590-1610; Warwickshire, England (probably), 35 cmX 20 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, T.145&A-1931
Handkerchief, c. 1600-20. Linen, with cutwork decoration, produced in the Flanders, 55 cmx 53.5 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, 484-1903
The Ruff Portrait of a Young Man, c. 1663. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery, London.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Rubens and his wife Isabella Brant in the honeysuckle. Oil on canvas, 178 x 136 cm. Alte Pinakothek, Munich
French Farthingale English Farthingale
Weapons Christoph Amberger(c.1500-61) Portrait of Christoph Fugger. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany.
Hollywood’s Shakespeare Hilliard’s 17th-Century Shakespeare