How to handle laboratory waste? Department Botany & Zoology,USF Gordon
Introduction • Safe, healthy & productive workplace environment • Responsible and effectively handling o hazardous waste • Good lab etiquette • Municipal and government laws exist to regulate and control hazardous waste disposal
Waste Removal • Cost enormous • Contractor - Millenium Waste ( Enviroserv and Sanumed) • Waste removal is arrange via USRPS/USBD
Waste management Manage waste responsible: • Classification/ Characterizing hazardous waste • Proper packaging • Proper storage of waste • Effective labeling • Waste collection protocol in place
Types of waste • Normal Municipal waste (general) • Recyclable waste • Broken Glass • Biological / Medical waste • Chemical waste • Sharps, Broken Glass • Radioactive material waste • Electronic and computer waste
Hazardous Waste • Any waste that directly or indirectly represents a threat to human health or to the environment by introducing one or more of the following risks: • Explosion or fire • Infections, pathogens, parasites or their vectors • Chemical instability, reactions or corrosion • Acute or chronic toxicity • Cancer, mutations or birth defects • Toxicity or damage to the ecosystems or natural resources • Accumulation in the biological food chain, persistence in the environment or multiple effects
SABS Code 0028ID & classification dangerous goods and substances • Class 1 Explosives • Class 2 Gases • Class 3 Flammable liquids • Class 4 Flammable solids • Class 5 Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides • Class 6 Toxic and infectious substances • Class 7 Radioactive Substances • Class 8 Corrosives • Class 9 Other miscellaneous substances
Segregate chemical waste • Proper segregation =good chemical hygiene + safe workplace environment • Only put compatible chemicals in a container • Also do not store the following near each other • Acids and bases • Organics and acids • Powdered or reactive metals and combustible materials • Cyanide, sulfide or arsenic compounds and acids • Mercury or silver and ammonium containing compounds • Do not mix solids and liquids • Halogenated with non-halogenated chemicals
Chemical Waste Compatibility (1) • Incompatible chemical waste not be mixed or store together • If it must be store in same area – separated secondary containment • Container must be compatible with the waste: • Mineral acids - plastic • Bases -Plastic • Oxidizers - Glass • Organics (incl Acetic acid) - Glass
Chemical Waste Compatibility (2) Take special care • Nitric acid: Reacts with organics-heat & gas Be sure container is rinse thoroughly • Perchloric acid, Organic Peroxides: Highly reactive with organics and organic material (wood). May react with metals • Hydrofluoric acid: Dissolves glass containers
Packaging of chemical waste (1) • Place hazardous waste in sealable containers • Enviroserv supply different plastic and metal containers • Sized from 25L to 200L, plastic or metal. • Containers must be kept closed. • Do not leave a hazardous waste container with a funnel in it. • Glass bottles with waste must be packed with vermiculite into bigger containers.
Packaging of chemical waste (2) • The container should not react with the waste being stored (e.g. NO hydrofluoric acid in glass) • Similar wastes may be mixed if they are compatible • Wastes from incompatible hazard classes should not be mixed (e.g. organic solvents with oxiders) • Be aware that certain metals also cause disposal problems when mixed with flammable liquid or other organic liquids.
Labeling • Must be labeled as HAZARDOUS WASTE • Should be accurate, legible and fully explained • Contain name of the department, lab group name, contact person details, content and concentration, hazard class, date • Use Enviroserv /Sanumed self adhesive labels or your own. • Waste vs. used • No old labels
Waste classification by Enviroserv Specific codes for different departments (BOTZOO) Code Type Disposal Method • 3A Flammables ABW • 3B Toxic compounds E • 3C Polyethelene Glycols TA • 3D Contaminated Broken Glass TC • 3E Contaminated tips, tubes TC • 3F Mineral acids ITP with Lime • 3G Concentrated organic acids TWC
Storage • Select the correct container (glass / polyethylene) for storage • Use original containers if possible • Use appropriate sized container • Do not make containers too heavy to lift by the contractors • Containers must be tightly sealed and not leak • Containers correctly labeled • Container compatible with chemical being stored -separate containers for each type of waste • Do not store longer than 90 days
Collection Procedures • Pack all waste in drums provided by contractors • Ensure glass bottles are prevented from breaking by adding vermiculite • All drums must be properly classified and labelled as HAZARDOUS WASTE • When drums are full, fill in a pick-up form and forward to USBD (Piet van Deventer, email firstname.lastname@example.org) • USBD will arrange for contractors (Enviroserv) to pick up the drums at your department
WASTETECH Pick Up, JANUARY 2006 Dept Botany and Zoology
Special waste (1) • Ethidium Bromide • Electrophoresis gels < 0.1% - trash • Electrophoresis gels >0.1% - biohazard box • EtBr solution- charcoal filtration • Mercury • Spilled-pooled droplets, gloves & paper-puncture resistant container –label “mercury spill debris”
Special waste (2) • Silica gel • Not grossly contaminated – normal lab trash • Heavy contaminated- disposed as hazardous waste • Batteries • Classified as universal waste rather than hazardous waste • Contain mercury, cadmium, lead, silver, lead-acid • Alkaline (no Hg) - not to be put in the normal trash. • South Africa Recycle program?
Unidentified Chemical waste • Should be considered unknown hazardous waste. • Unknown waste cannot be legally transported or disposed. • To dispose them safely and properly it need to be characterised by Enviroserv which is a costly affair. • Find out as much as possible about how the waste was generated. • Please DO NOT Pour unknown chemicals down the drain Mix unknown chemicals with any other chemicals Bring unknown chemicals to a regular waste pick up Abandon unknown chemicals in the work area.
BIOLOGICAL WASTE • Definition: Waste generated from biologically-cultured stocks and plates, molecular material, blood, animal and plant tissues etc. • All sharps e.g. glass implements, needles, syringes, blades, glass Pasteur pipettes • Separate biological waste from chemical hazardous waste • Treat to eliminate biohazard by sterilization or incineration • Label correct, use biohazard tape
Biological waste cont. • Animal Bedding waste • Bagged – not be mixed with other waste • Labelled as animal bedding waste • Are to be autoclaved before being placed in medical waste boxes – disposed in the medical waste stream • Animal carcasses • Are kept frozen • Get an order number from Elmarie King –USBD (email@example.com) • Department took the carcasses themselves to the Western Province Veterinary lab , Stb for incineration
Containers (1) –Biological • Biohazard/medical waste boxes • Disposal of non-sharp bio hazardous waste • Cardboard box lined with a red 45 micron plastic bag • Two sizes 50 and 142 litre-max 15kg • Seal bag with cable tie, seal box with biohaz .tape • Sanumed destruct it by high temp. incineration
Containers (2) –Biological • Biohazard Sharp containers • Disposal sharp bio-hazardous waste • 100% puncture proof • Available in 4, 7.6, 10, 15 and 25 l • Destruction by high temp
Containers (3) –Biological • Specimen bins • For safe human and animal tissue disposal. • Ideal for wet waste • Available in 2.5, 5 and 10 l bin • Destruction by high temp
Points to remember • No bio-hazardous waste shall be stored for longer than 24 hours without being decontaminated • Decontaminated bio-hazardous waste stored up to 30 days • No storage public areas • Store under refrigeration if necessary to prevent odors • Sharps containers treated as regular bio-hazardous waste
Bio-hazardous waste Pick-up Procedures • Seal red bags when ¾ full with cable ties provided by contractor • Seal Biohazard/Medical waste boxes with biohazard tape • Complete chemical/biological waste pick-up request form • Forward electronically to USBD • USBD will arrange for contractor (Sanumed) to pick up waste and replace containers as needed
Ways to minimize waste • Good housekeeping • Document Procedures • Maintain Chemical inventory • Centralize purchasing • Spill Preparedness • Neutralize corrosives • Minimize use of solvents • Use alternative products
Information • http://www.sun.ac.za/usbd/forms • http://www.princeton.edu/sites/ehs/labsafetymanual • http://www.enviroserv.co.za • http://www.epa.gov/sbo/labguide • Minimum requirements for the handling, classification and disposal of hazardous waste. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, RSA, 2nd edition 1998 • CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety 5th Edition-Keith Furr • Laboratory Safety: Practice and Principles-Flemming Diane