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Chapter 6. Parenting Impact on Alcohol/Drug Use and Abuse. Chapter Objectives. Explain the role parent-child bonding plays in preventing problem behaviors and future alcohol/drug problems. Define the diagnostic criteria of abandonment depression.

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Chapter 6


Impact on Alcohol/Drug Use and Abuse

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Chapter Objectives

  • Explain the role parent-child bonding plays in preventing problem behaviors and future alcohol/drug problems.

  • Define the diagnostic criteria of abandonment depression.

  • Describe the child temperaments that may contribute or make the child at-risk for substance abuse.

  • Explain “quality” of parent-child relationship and its impact on substance use and abuse.

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Chapter Objectives

  • Define shame and describe the domains of shame and the common affect-shame binds.

  • Describe rejection sensitivity, difficulty making decisions, and poor frustration tolerance.

  • Classify behaviors that indicate parental imbalance.

  • Define and describe boundaries and boundary inadequacy.

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Chapter Objectives

  • Describe triangulation in the family.

  • Describe the impact of parental use or abuse of alcohol/drugs on the child’s future use or abuse.

  • Describe the imbalanced life cycles of families.

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Parent-Child Bonding

  • Abandonment Depression

    • An affective disorder with six key elements:

      • Homicidal rage

      • Suicidal depression

      • Panic

      • Feelings of hopelessness/helplessness

      • Emptiness and void

      • Guilt

    • Impact of early abandonment on adult interpersonal relationships

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Parent-Child Bonding

  • Child’s Temperament

    • Evidence that extremes in certain temperament traits, such as high activity level, emotionality, attention span, and sociability are associated with children of alcoholics.

    • Aspects of temperament may predict the behavior problems and substance abuse problems that frequently arise during adolescence.

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Parenting Styles That Shame Children

  • Shame

    • The self looking at itself, and finding it lacking, flawed, inadequate.

    • Is like a flash flood of emotion that wipes out the interpersonal connection with people

  • Differences between a shame-based system and balanced system

    • Shame-based

      • No hope, inescapable, and exterior-based

    • Balanced system

      • Hope-choice, can make amends, internally based

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Parents’ Shame

  • Parents who have not done a good job of parenting may experience shame.

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Shame and Feelings

  • Shame is a very powerful feeling, and when it is attached to other feelings, they are escalated:

    • Anger plus shame equals rage

  • Adolescent sexual identity and shame

  • Sexual violation and shame

  • Drug, sex, and shame

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Characteristics of Shame and Abandonment

  • Rejection sensitivity

  • Fear and difficulty making decisions

  • Poor frustration tolerance

  • Other reactions and defenses

    • Overly defensive

    • Extremely critical or judgemental

    • Rage or distorted thinking

    • Masking true feelings and emotions

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Parental Imbalance and Boundary Setting

  • Clear boundaries

    • Allow mutual respect and concern

  • Enmeshed boundaries

    • Are inflexible, are unyielding, and leave no room for differences

  • Disengaged boundaries

    • Are overly rigid, with little or no opportunity for communication

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Boundary Inadequacy

  • Ambiguous boundary inadequacy

    • A pattern of double messages

  • Overly rigid boundary inadequacy

    • Smooth and efficient functioning is a priority over being responsive and adaptable

  • Invasive boundary inadequacy

    • An imbalance of power is used to objectify people

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Boundary Ambiguity

  • Stage 1 – Clustering

  • Stage 2 – Conflict

  • Stage 3 – Individuation

  • Stage 4 - Connection

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  • Triangulation is at least two adults involved in an off-spring’s problem, where the parent-child dyad is pitted against a more peripheral parent, stepparent, grandparent, parent’s lover, or another relative.

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Imbalanced Life Cycles of Families

  • Relationships between families and the joining of families

  • Family and the young child

  • Family and the adolescent

  • Launching of children

  • Later life

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Fathers of Alcoholics/Addicts

  • Dealing with resistance

    • Reassure the father that he is important

    • Point out that changes depend on his action

    • Make the father aware that he has the power to sabotage treatment

    • Note that the father has choices

    • Place responsibility for change squarely on father’s shoulders

    • Get the father to consider realigning his priorities