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slide2

Suppose you had only 10 minutes to run into a supermarket to get what you needed. Could you do it? In most supermarkets this would be an easy task. You would probably head straight to the area where the items were located. But what if you had to shop for the same items in a market where things were randomly placed throughout the store. Where would you begin? You would have to search through a lot of things before you found what you needed! You could be there for a long time!

classification putting things into groups based on similar characteristics
Classification – putting things into groups based on similar characteristics
  • Make sense out of a chaotic natural world
  • Easier to find information
  • Identify relationships

Why Classify?

biologist organize living things into categories
Biologist organize living things into categories
  • Taxonomy - the science of identifying and classifying organisms
we use classification every day
We Use Classification Every Day!
  • Classify our clothes – (hopefully they are not all mixed together in a big pile on your bedroom floor)
  • Classify our dishes – (bowls, plates, spoons, forks, cups)
  • Classify our food – (how did you know where to find the cereal this morning?)
classifying
Classifying
  • 1 group
  • 2 groups
  • 3 groups
  • 4 groups
  • 5 groups
early classification
Early Classification
  • Aristotle – 4th century B.C.
  • Classification based on – where animals lived

Land

Water

Air

problems
Problems
  • Some animals fit into more than one group
early classification1
Early Classification
  • Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) - Swedish biologist in early 1700’s
  • Classification based on – shape and structure

“The father of modern taxonomy”

carolus linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus

Two important contributions

Hierarchical

Classification

Binomial

Nomenclature

Grouping

organisms

Naming

organisms

hierarchical classification ranked from more general to more specific
Hierarchical Classification – ranked from more general to more specific

More

General

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

More

Specific

remembering hierarchical classification mnemonics
Remembering Hierarchical Classification - mnemonics

Kingdom

King

Phillip

Came

Over

For

Good

Soup

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

practice using hierarchical classification
Practice using Hierarchical classification

The more levels you share with others, the more you have in common

practice using hierarchical classification1
Practice using Hierarchical classification
  • Classify your closet into K,P,C,O,F,G,S
naming organisms
Naming Organisms
  • Scientific name – a name that remains the same in the biological world

Why not use common names?

slide18

Names differ in other countries/languages

Sweden - groda

Africa - padda

Russia - zhaba

Italy - rana

“FROG”

names are written in latin
Names are written in Latin

In the Middle Ages, Latin became the accepted language of the scholar and scientist

why latin
Why Latin?
  • Latin is a “dead” language

It is no longer spoken as a national or even regional language anywhere in the world. Because of this, Latin words do not change so the pure Latin is not be corrupted by developing slang words from it

“bruisecruise,” “shingrater,” and “stonesoup”

just some of the over 300 slang terms used to describe the same exact thing –

crashing on a skateboard

why latin1
Why Latin?
  • Latin need not be translated

No matter what language you speak, the Latin scientific name is left as it is instead of using the common name

polynomial
Polynomial
  • used many words to describe the organism

Catnip

"Nepetafloribusinterruptespicatuspendunculatis"

(Nepeta with flowers in an interrupted pedunculated spike).

honey bee
Honey bee

Apis, pubescens, thoracesubgriseo, abdominefusco, pedibusposticisglabrisutrinquemargine ciliates

12 words long!

name for humans
Name for humans…
  • “hairy on top, bare on the bottom of the walking surfaces, bipedal, eyes forward with binocular vision, opposable thumbs, no wings, no feathers, capable of rational thought and the capacity to love.”
binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
  • two part scientific name

The scientific name for

the Asian elephant is

Elephasmaximus

rules for writing scientific names
Rules for writing scientific names

Kingdom

1. Use the genus and species

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Elephas

Genus

maximus

Species

rules for writing scientific names1
Rules for writing scientific names

2. Genus is first

  • It is always capitalized

3. Species is second

  • It is always lower case

4. Both words are italicized or underlined

example
Example
  • UrsusarctosorUrsusarctos
the mushroom coral
The Mushroom Coral
  • Phylum Cnidaria
  • Class Anthozoa
  • Order Scleractinia
  • Family Fungiidae
  • Genus Fungia
  • Species scutaria
practice using binomial nomenclature
Practice using binomial nomenclature
  • Remember that binomial nomenclature is a two-name naming system…kind of like a first and a last name.

MaIiaKunde

individual

or species

The group I

belong to or

genus

Kunde

malia

Kundemalia

practice using binomial nomenclature1
Practice using binomial nomenclature
  • Which of these names is written correctly in binomial nomenclature?

A. felisdomesticus

B. FelisDomesticus

C. Felisdomesticus

D. felisDomesticus

what does a third name mean
What does a third name mean?
  • Subspecies

tiger species is Pantheratigris

Bengal tiger is Pantheratigristigris Siberian tiger is Pantheratigrisaltaica

  • Person who discovered it

Strigiphilusarisgarylarsoni

abbreviating
Abbreviating
  • Use the Capital letter of the Genus
  • Example: E. coli or T. rex