Clothing Management Unit 2 Textiles Tonja Bolding Lakeside High School
Unit 2 terms 1. blends -in clothing, a term to refer to combining different fibers into one yarn 2. care label -a label inside a garment describing its fiber content and how to care for it 3. cellulose fibers -fibers made from plant (wood) sources 4. fabric finish -treatment given to clothing to improve appearance, texture, or performance 5. fiber -a basic unit from which fabric is made 6. grain line -a line on a pattern piece with arrows that show how to place the pattern on the straight grain of the fabric 7. gray (greige)goods -unfinished fabric that lacks color when it first comes from the loom 8. hang tag -a tag providing information about the garment to which it is attached, such as price and size
9. knitted fabric -fabric made by looping yarns together 10. manufactured fiber -fibers not found in nature 11. natural fiber -a fiber that comes from plants or hair of animals 12. non-woven fabric -fabric made using heat, moisture, and/or adhesive 13. permanent finish -a fabric finish that lasts the entire life of the garment 14. pill -small balls of fiber that form on the surface of fabric 15. ply yarn -yarn made by twisting two or more single yarns together 16. woven fabric -made by interlacing lengthwise and crosswise yarns 17. yarn -fibers twisted together or laid side by side
2.1 Name textile uses • Clothing is not the only use of textile products. • Textiles are used to make sheets, towels, upholstery, carpets, umbrellas, filters, space suits, etc.. • Football turf is made from textiles. • Artificial hearts use textiles as well. • Textiles are used for everything from blouses to buildings.
2.2 Differentiate between natural and manufactured fibers Natural Fibers • Natural fibers come from plants or the hair of animals. • Cotton, linen, wool,and silk are the most common natural fibers. • Quality varies on the type of plant or animal and the growing conditions. • They have unique characteristics that cannot be copied by science.
Examples of Natural Fibers • Cotton is a natural cellulosic fiber obtained from the cotton plant. • Advantages- strong, launders well, inexpensive, comfortable, wide variety of uses • Disadvantages- shrinks in hot water, mildews if out in damp storage, wrinkles easily • Uses- outer wear, underwear, home furnishing
Flax is the fiber used to make linen. Advantages-strongest of natural fibers, durable, lint free, stands high temperatures Disadvantages-expensive, wrinkles easy unless treated, has color loss Uses- Clothing (suits, handkerchiefs) Home furnishings (draperies, tablecloths) linen fabric Egyptian flax
Ramie comes from a plant often grown in China and India. Often called “China Grass.” Advantages-strong, durable, dries quickly, absorbs moisture Disadvantages-wrinkles easily, stiff and wire like, and coarse Uses- cords, can be combined with other fabrics to make home furnishings, and combined with other natural and manufactured fibers in wearing apparel Ramie is often blended with cotton ramie plant
Other uses of Natural Fibers • Jute is used to make rope and burlap. • Hemp is used to make rope, cording for jewelry making, clothing and accessories.
Wool is made from the fleece of sheep or lambs. Advantages-warmest of all fibers, wrinkle resistant, durable, combines with other fibers successfully Disadvantages-expensive, shrink and mat when moisture applied, absorbs odors Uses-clothing (outerwear, sweaters) home furnishings(blankets, rugs, upholstery)
Silk is obtained by the unwinding of a silkworms cocoon. Advantages-strong but lightweight, soil resistant Disadvantages-dry-cleaning, yellows with age, expensive Uses-Clothing (wedding dresses, blouses) home furnishings(lampshades, wall hangings)
Specialty Hair Fibers camel’s hair angora goat alpaca guanaco cashmere goat llama vicuna
Manufactured Fibers • Manufactured fibers are not found in nature. • They surround you. They are in your clothes, on your furniture, at your school, and in your car. • Rayon was the first commercially produced fiber.
Rayon • Rayon is very much like cotton. • Advantages-drapes well, comfortable, soft, inexpensive • Disadvantages-weak when wet, stretches, will mildew • Uses-Blouses, dresses, curtains, bedding
Acetate • It looks and feels luxurious. It takes dye well. • Advantages- drapes well, inexpensive, easy to dye • Disadvantages- weak, special care for cleaning, heat sensitive • Uses-dresses, scarves, shirts
Triacetate • Triacetate is similar to acetate in appearance. • Advantages-easy to care for, does not shrink, resists wrinkles and fading • Disadvantages-weak, nonabsorbent • Use-blouses, dresses, lightweight knits
Nylon • Nylon is very strong and durable. • Advantages-lightweight,dries quickly, retains shape, easy care • Disadvantages-damaged by sun, surface pills, heat sensitive • Uses-casual tops, camisoles, slips, windbreakers
Polyester • Very versatile. Almost any appearance and texture can be achieved. • Advantages-easy care, resistant to wrinkles, strong/durable, easy to dye • Disadvantages-takes oily stains, low absorbency, static buildup • Uses-underwear, carpets, children’s wear
Olefin • Lightest fiber made. Floats on water and has very low absorption • Advantages-Strong/durable, inexpensive, very lightweight • Disadvantages-heat sensitive, poor dye ability, non absorbent • Uses- upholster, outdoor furniture
Acrylic • Often used as a replacement for wool. It is soft, warm and lightweight • Advantages-keeps it shape well, resists sunlight, chemicals and wrinkles • Disadvantages-pills, static electricity • Uses-sportswear, sweaters, blankets
Modacrylic • Flame resistant, soft and warm • Advantages-resists shrinkage and chemicals, retains shape, easy to dye • Disadvantages-weak, static buildup • Uses-fake fur, wigs, carpets, blankets
Spandex • Elastic like rubber • Advantages-very elastic, smooth, lightweight, easy care, resists sunlight, oil and perspiration • Disadvantages-yellows with age, heat sensitive, harmed by bleach • Uses-swimwear, skiwear, exercise and dance wear
2.3 Distinguish between staple and filament fibers Staple Fibers • Staple fibers are short strands of fibers. • Most natural fibers are staple. • Manufactured fibers can be made into staple fibers. Filament Fibers • A filament is a long continuous strand of fiber. • Any manufactured fiber can be made in filament form. • Silk is the only natural fiber that is a filament.
acetate acrylic aramid azlon cotton flax glass metallic modacrylic novoloid nylon olefin polyester ramie rayon rubber saran silk spandex triacetate vinyon wool Generic fiber is the name of the fiber. They can be natural or manufactured. 2.4 Identify generic and tradename fibers
Acrilan Canrrece Celeanese Cepeset Chromspu Coolmax Cleerspun Creslan Dacron Duarspun Estron Fibro Fortrel Galaxy Herculon Lurex Lycra Microloft MicroSafe Orlan SEF Plus Spectra Trevira Viscose Zantrel Zeftron Tradename is the identifying name, symbol, or design, that sets a manufacturer’s product apart from similar products or competitors. May feature the trademark symbol ® and will be capitalized.
2.5 State procedures for making fibers into yarn. Cotton: Fiber to Yarn (Natural Fiber) • Cotton is picked and taken to a gin that separates the fibers from the seed. • Cotton is compressed into bales. • It is formed into a lap which is a continuous layer of fibers that is wrapped around a cylinder. • Carding pulls the fibers from the lap, cleans and straightens them into a much thinner web of fibers. This is done by a carding machine. • These fibers go through a funnel-shaped devise that molds then into a soft ropelike strand slightly thicker than your finger called a carded sliver. • Many carded slivers are combined and stretched into a single drawn sliver about the diameter of a single carded sliver in a process called drawing. • Combing is done to make fibers even more parallel and to remove any short fibers which makes long, smoother, stronger yarns. • Fibers are fed into a roving frame where it is twisted slightly and pulled to become a smaller stand called roving about the size of a pencil. • Spinning machines pull the roving finer, add more twist and winds the yarn(fibers twisted together or laid side by side) on bobbins.
Manufactured Fibers into Yarn • Solid raw material is changed into a liquid. • The liquid is extruded through a spinneret which is like a shower head. • It hardens in the form of a fiber. • To make a filament yarn, a few filaments are twisted together into yarns. • To make staple yarns, filaments are cut into short lengths and later spun into yarns
2.6 Discuss basic methods of fabric construction • Woven fabric is made by interlacing lengthwise and crosswise yarns • created on a machine called a loom. • Knitted fabric is made by looping yarns together
2.7 Identify types of weaves and knits Weaves • plain weave is made by passing a filling yarn over one warp yarn and then under one warp yarn. Over one under one pattern. • muslin • twill weave is made when a yarn in one direction floats(passes) over two or more yarns in the other direction. • denim • satin weave is made by floating a yarn from one direction over four or more yarns from the other direction then under one yarn. • satin fabric
Knits • weft knitting is the process of knitting in which loops are made as yarn is added in the crosswise direction of the fabric. • T-shirts • hosiery • warp knitting is the process of knitting in which loops are made by one or more sets of warps yarns. • Tricot jersey • lace
2.8 Discuss processes for dyeing and printing fabrics Dyeing • Solution dyeing is the process of dyeing manufactured fibers by adding dye to the liquid before the fiber is forced through the spinneret. • Fiber dyeing is the process of dyeing fibers before they are spun into yarns. • Stock dyeing is the process of adding dye to loose fibers. • Yarn dyeing is a dyeing process in which yarns are first wound onto spools and than placed in a dye bath. • Piece dyeing is the process of adding dye after the fabric has been made.
Printing In roller printing the design is etched on copper rollers. A separate cylinder is used for each color. In rotary screen printing, the design is transferred onto a cylinder-shaped screen. There is a cylinder for each screen. Dye is forced through a pattern of holes in each screen. This is one of the newest and fasting printing methods.
2.9 Identify fabric finishes Performance Finishes • Antistatic prevent garments from cling to the wearer. • Crease/wrinkle Resistant is treated with resins to help the fabric resists wrinkles. • Durable/permanent Press “heat sets” fabrics or garments without using resins. • Flame-Resistant cuts off the oxygen supply or changes the chemical make up fibers as a fabric burns. This causes the flame to extinguish itself. • Mildew Resistant has a metallic chemical applied to the fabric to prevent mildew from forming. • Mercerization is chemically treating fabric to improve luster, strength, and absorbency
Moth Repellant has chemicals added to dye baths to slightly change wool fibers so moths and carpet beetles will be repelled. Preshrunk fabrics are shrunk by moisture and heat and will not shrink more than 3% unless otherwise stated. Sanforized® is a trademark that means that fabrics have been processed so they will not shrink more than 1% in either direction. Soil Release allows fabrics to be more easily “wetted”, allowing detergents to better job. Stain-Resistant finish cause fabrics to repel food, water, and other substances by reducing absorbency. Water-Repellant and Water-proof is applied to tightly woven fabrics to help them resist water.
Texture Finishes Calendaring finish has heat and pressure applied to the fabric to produce a smooth polished surface. Napping raises the short, loose fibers on the fabric surface to make it soft and fuzzy. Sizing has a starch or resin applied to fabrics to increase weight, body, and luster. Weighting is the addition of metallic salts to silk.
2.10 Describe laws and regulations related to clothing and textile industries • The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (TFPIA) requires labels to tell what fibers are in the textile. • The Care Labeling Rule states that all clothing (except hosiery) give clear, uniform, and detailed instructions for care and maintenance. • The Flammable Fabrics Act specifies flammability standards for household textiles and apparel.
2.11 Name consumer rights and responsibilities regarding clothing and textiles • Information cover in CM 1.16