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Medieval Europe. AKA the Middle Ages AKA the Dark Ages. In a nutshell. Maintains a strong central government. Struggles to reestablish a strong central government. Roman Empire. Eastern Byzantine Empire. Western Roman Empire. Overrun by barbarians in 476AD. Constantinople

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Medieval europe

Medieval Europe

AKA the Middle Ages

AKA the Dark Ages

In a nutshell
In a nutshell

Maintains a

strong central


Struggles to reestablish

a strong central


Roman Empire

Eastern Byzantine


Western Roman Empire

Overrun by barbarians in



replaces Rome as the world’s

wealthiest city

Includes Italy, Gaul

Britain and Spain.

Dark Ages

Resists barbarian invasions

Eastern Orthodox Church

Roman Catholic


The Roman Empire split between east and west 395AD

The Systems fell apart or collapsed

  • The political System fell

  • The Economic system fell

  • The Social System fell

  • The Belief system didn’t fall it Reorganized

Rome Falls

  • What do we mean when we say that Rome fell?

  • Did it fall like a person falls?

  • Where did it go?

  • How much of it fell?

  • Who caused it to fall?

  • Did it stay fallen?

The Middle Ages

Western Europe






Trade $$$$ Towns




Dark Ages


With the fall of rome the lights go out
With the fall of ROMEthe lights go out.

  • Germanic invasion destroyed most of the accomplishments of the Romans.

  • Trade and transportation disappeared

  • The system of Law and Order collapsed

  • Economy based upon a common currency (money) dissolved. Europeans took a step backwards from a cash to a barter economy.

Pay attention
Pay attention !!!

  • Are you writing this stuff down?

Enter the m erovingian kings
Enter the M EROVINGIAN Kings

  • The Merovingian Kings ruled the most powerful of the Germanic groups, the Franks.

  • These Frankish Kings controlled what is now France and Western Germany.

  • The first of the Merovingian Kings was Clovis.

  • Fifteen years after becoming King, Clovis converted to Catholicism/Christanity.

The decline of the merovingian kings
The decline of the Merovingian Kings

  • Rivalries between heirs to the Frankish throne caused the decline and end of the Merovingian monarchy.

  • The important thing is that the link between the Germanic kings and the Catholic (Universal) Christain Church was established.

Mayors of the palace
Mayors of the Palace

  • To prevent further fragmentation of the kingdom, the kings established the Mayors of the Palace.

  • These government officials were responsible for running the kingdom.

Charles martel
Charles Martel

  • In 732, Charles Martel as Mayor of the Palace lead a successful defense against Muslim invasion at the Battle of Tours.

  • Christian Europe was “saved” and Martel was promoted.

  • In 752 Charles Martel’s son Pepin the Short was named and anointed king by the Pope.


  • Pepin’s son became king in 768. Charlemagne(Charles the Great) became the first of the Carolingian Kings.

Charlemagne s accomplishments
Charlemagne’s Accomplishments

  • Established the Frankish Empire.

  • Encouraged learning in Europe.

  • Defended Pope Leo III against rebellious nobles in Rome.

  • Revived the idea of a unified Christian Church and Empire.

Life in medieval europe
Life in Medieval Europe



The Catholic Church

Life in medieval europe1
Life in Medieval Europe

Feudalism (Political)



The Catholic Church (Social and Belief)

Life in medieval europe2
Life in Medieval Europe

  • Political systems determine who makes the major decisions.

  • Economic systems determine how goods are distributed (who gets what and how much).

  • Belief and Social systems determine what beliefs and values are promoted (how people should live).

Political system
Political System

  • Feudal society was ruled by the hierarchy to the right.

  • A hierarchy is a system of ranking that determines importance, value or power and ranges from least to most …

The manorial economic system
The Manorial / economic system

  • The manorial system was also based on a rigid {fixed} hierarchy. Each group had a specific job and duties. All goods were produced and consumed in the same estate (manor).

Belief system
Belief System

  • During the Middle Ages, the Christian Church spilt in to two distinct branches, the Orthodox Christian Church (in the East) and the Roman Catholic Church (in the West).

  • While Western Europe experienced the Middle (Dark) Ages, The Byzantine Empire continued in the East.

The roman catholic church hierarchy

The Pope



Local Priests

The Roman Catholic Church hierarchy

The role of the church

Spiritual Role

Priests instructed the people in the Faith and acceptable behavior.

Heaven, Hell and Excommunication (expulsion from the Church) guaranteed the compliance of church rules.

Secular (worldly or non-sacred) Role

The Church gained wealth through the tithe and became the largest land holder in Europe.

The Church also controlled education.

Criticizing the Church was considered the capital crime of heresy.

The role of the Church

How religion can power

The Sacraments of the Catholic Church




Holy Orders

Last Rites

The Church had the authority to administer or withhold the sacraments.

The Church therefore had the power to decide who could marry whom and who could practice religion.

How religion can = Power

Political power of the church
Political Power of the Church

  • The Church created secular laws called Cannon laws and established its own court system.

  • Sometimes monarchs refused to recognize the Church's authority.

  • {In 1200s Pope Innocent III excommunicated King John of England.}

The growth of anti semitism
The growth of Anti-Semitism

  • The Church banned Jewish people from owning land or practicing many occupations.

  • Jewish people were also blamed for many misfortunes including famines and diseases.

  • Jewish people were persecuted because many Christians blamed them for the death of Jesus Christ.

The crusades
The Crusades

  • In 1050s, the Turks who were Muslims invaded the Byzantine Empire and conquered Palestine. The Christine Church called for a holy war to drive the Muslims from the Palestine. These war were known as the Crusades.

The crusades 200 year war

1. The Turks invaded Palestine in 1050

2. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont encouraged all Christians to reclaim the Holy Land.

Initially (at first) the Christians were successful and captured the city of Jerusalem in 1099.

The Crusaders divided the conquered lands into four Crusader states.

The Crusades 200 year war


Muslim victory of commander Saladin.

Saladin united the Muslims and the recaptured Palestine (the Christian Holy Land).

The Crusaders in Jerusalem surrender.

Unlike the Crusaders who massacred Muslims and Jewish people years earlier, Saladin commanded his soldiers not to kill or massacre the Christians.



Richard the Lion-Hearted, King of England led the Third Crusade in 1189.

Although he won several victories, his armies were unable to recapture Jerusalem.

The Crusades fizzled out.

The Fourth Crusade was likewise unsuccessful.

Later Muslims recaptured the last Crusader states in 1291 and massacred its Christian inhabitants


The crusades are important why
The Crusades are important Why? Crusade in 1189.

  • The Crusades left behind a legacy of hatred and revenge between Christians and Muslims.

  • The Crusades encouraged trade that introduced new goods to western Europe building up the Merchant class.

  • The Crusades also encouraged learning and exposed the Europeans to advances made in the East {math , science, literature and the arts}.

The crusades1
The Crusades Crusade in 1189.

  • Because of its results, the Crusades are often called the most successful war that was ever lost.

Cause and effect of the crusades
Cause and Crusade in 1189.effect of the Crusades

Assessment of learning homework
Assessment of Learning/Homework Crusade in 1189.

  • This is the end of this PowerPoint™ presentation.

  • You may opt to review and reorganize your notes before taking the Middle Ages Assessment now,

  • Or you may opt to take the Middle Ages Assessment now.

  • Your completed Middle Ages Assessment is due next class.