Injury Prevention • A conditioned athlete decreases his/her risk of injury. • The lack of physical fitness is a primary cause of sports injury • The athletic trainer and strength and conditioning coach need to have an open line of communication regarding injuries and modified workouts • Athletes must be educated on proper lifting techniques and mechanics in order to avoid injury in the weight room.
Overload Principle • Overload – athlete must work harder than he or she is accustomed to working for physiological improvements • The stress should not be great enough to produce damage/injury before the body has a chance to adjust to the demands
The SAID principle • SAID principle – directly relates to the overload principle. When the body is subjected to stress and overloads of varying intensities, it will gradually adapt over time to overcome the demands placed on it • Specific Adaptationsto Imposed Demands
Conditioning • 3 main phases of conditioning • Off season • Transition period, • Recreational, not structured • preparatory period • cross training, low intensity/high volume, non sport specific • strength phase • Moderate intensity/volume, more sport specific • Preseason • Power Phase • Sport specific, high intensity, decrease volume • In season • Competition period • Low volume, skill training, maintenance of strength and power
Conditioning • Physical fitness components include: • Cardio-respiratory endurance • Muscle strength • Endurance • Flexibility • General Conditioning: aerobic fitness, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, nutrition, and body composition • Sports-Specific Conditioning: all aspects of the sport that are unique to it
Conditioning Aerobic fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance) • Regardless of sport, all athletes benefit from improving aerobic fitness. • Whole body, large muscle activities for an extended period of time • Treadmill, running, biking, elliptical, etc…
Basics • Muscle contraction – Shortening or lengthening of the muscle fibers; Tension generated by the muscle • 2 Types • Isometric – no length change during the contraction • Pushing against the wall • Isotonic – (Dynamic movements) • Concentric – shortening of the muscle with contraction in an effort to overcome the resistance • Eccentric – lengthening of the muscle with contraction because the load/resistance is greater that the force of the muscle
Conditioning Muscular strength and endurance: Benefits: Increased bone density, Improved strength ratios, Increased muscular endurance, Decreased injury risk • Muscular strength – Ability of a muscle to generate a maximum force during a single contraction against a resistance • Muscular endurance – Ability to perform repetitive muscle contractions against a resistance
Flexibility Flexibility: ROM in a given joint or combination of joint. Generally seen as essential for improving performance. • Determinants include tissue temperature, bone structure, tissue mass, age, and gender. • Two types of flexibility are • Static • dynamic
Stretching • Flexibility can be improved through stretching. The goal of stretching is to improve the ROM of that joint. • Four types of stretching • ballistic • static/passive • PNF • dynamic
Stretching • Ballistic • Bouncing movement with repetitive contractions of the opposite muscle in order to produce a stretch in the targeted muscle. Achieved through quick jerks/pulls of a resisted muscle • Static • Widely used and effective; Performed by placing the targeted muscle in a maximal position of stretch and holding it there for usually 30 seconds repeated 3 times.
Stretching • PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) • Different techniques used to improve flexibility • All involve some combination of alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles
Stretching • Dynamic Stretching • Successive forceful contractions of one muscle that results in the stretching of the opposite muscle • Closely related to athletic activities; considered more functional
Range of Motion (ROM) The distance and direction a joint can move between the flexed position and the extended position • Each specific joint has a normal range of motion that is expressed in degrees • Measured by using a goniometer or inclinometer
Conditioning Nutrition and body composition: • The body responds to a conditioning program more effectively when it receives proper nourishment. • Coaches, parents, and athletes must take care to avoid an overemphasis on leanness.
Protective Equipment • Protective equipment plays a vital role in the prevention of injury • Virtually all sports can benefit from the use of some form of safety equipment—including mouth guards