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Injury prevention and control. By Steph and Leah. Key Features. The term injury relates to the adverse effects on the human body that may result from a range of different events.

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key features
Key Features
  • The term injury relates to the adverse effects on the human body that may result from a range of different events.
  • Injuries may be accidental, such as falls, poisoning, drowning, sporting and work place injuries, and car crashes or they could be intentional such as suicide attempted suicide and violence.
  • Some factors affecting the risk of injury include age, sex, alcohol and substance use, residence, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
  • Since 1995 there has been a 9% decrease in the standardized mortality rate for death from injury and poisoning. This decrease has been influenced largely by the decline in deaths from car crashes.
why has it been selected as a nhpa
Why has it been selected as a nhpa?
  • Injury was projected to be responsible for about 7% of the burden of disease in disability adjusted life years (DALY) in Australia in 2010.
  • 6.2% of all deaths in Australia in 2010 were injury related.
  • Injury is the main cause of death for people under the age of 45.
  • All injury cases are considered to be preventable.
  • Injuries incur significant direct, indirect and intangible costs.
how it contributes to the burden of disease
How it contributes to the burden of disease
  • Infants and young children are more at risk of drowning as their knowledge of water and swimming are limited and their body proportions mean their heads are relatively heavy, so an infant or young child may struggle to lift their head out of the water.
  • Older people are more likely to die from falls as their bodies are generally not as string as younger people’s and are affected more by the trauma associated with falls.
risk factors biological
risk factors: biological
  • Age can be a significant risk factor for a range of injuries.
  • Body shape and size can also influence the types of injury people are likely to sustain for example the body shape and size of an infant makes them more likely to drown as their heads are large compared with the rest of their body which makes it difficult for them to lift their heads out of the water.
risk factors behavioural
Risk factors: behavioural
  • Alcohol use. People affected by alcohol often take unnecessary risks that can result in higher rates of injury such as drink driving or swimming while intoxicated.
  • Drug use contributes to higher rates of mental illness which can influence self- harm and violence rates. It also contributes to disability and death if driving while under the influence.
  • Physical activity. People participating in contact sports may be at an increased risk for sport related injuries.
  • Risk taking behavior. Men are more likely than women to take risks and therefore have higher rates of injury.
risk factors physical environment
Risk factors: physical environment
  • Work environment. Aspects of the work environment can contribute to the risks of injury. Machinery associated with farming and mining are examples of causes of such injuries.
  • Transport. Poor road quality, lighting, and signage all impact on the risk of injuries. In areas where these factors are not optimal the risk of injury increases.
  • Housing. Unsafe housing can increase the risk of falls and injuries.
  • Access to recreation facilities. Access to bodies of water may increase the risk of drowning (beaches, rivers, etc.)
risk factors social
Risk factors: social
  • Socioeconomic status – those of a lower socioeconomic status are more likely to be injured. This may be a result of lower levels of education, the types of occupations carried out or lack of financial resources to ensure cars are in safe working order.
  • Social exclusion and social isolation – those who are socially excluded and isolated may not have people to talk to when required. This can increase the risk of injuries of mental health issues and injuries from self harm.
2 health promotional strategies
2 health promotional strategies
  • The National Slips and Falls prevention project. This is a federal government program that provides resources to health professionals and consumers about preventing falls among the elderly.
  • The National Binge Drinking Strategy. This program is funded by the federal government and aims to reduce the risk of injury associated with alcohol misuse. It includes the ‘Don’t turn a night out into a nightmare’ advertising campaign.

direct costs
Direct costs
  • In 2004-05 $3.4 billion was spent on the direct costs of direct injuries. This was a 6.5% of total health expenditure for all conditions.
  • Pharmaceutical benefits scheme cost. Pharmaceuticals may be prescribed to assist in pain management.
indirect costs
Indirect costs
  • Indirect costs can be significant due to the long term nature of many injuries.
  • Long term care. Individuals requiring long term care may be required to contribute to these costs.
intangible costs
Intangible costs
  • As injuries are unforeseen, there are many costs related to the mental health of the individual.
  • A person who is permanently disabled may experience frustration as they relearn tasks they could once do.
  • Deaths from injuries cause anguish among family members, friends and other members of the community.