Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • “I felt the need to clean my room at home in Indianapolis every Sunday and would spend four to five hours at it. I would take every book out of the bookcase, dust and put it back. At the time I loved doing it. Then I didn’t want to do it anymore, but I couldn’t stop. The clothes in my closet hung exactly two fingers apart.… I made a ritualof touching the wall in my bedroom before I went out because something bad would happen if I didn’t do it the right way. I had a constant anxiety about it as a kid, and it made me think for the first time that I might be nuts.” • Marc, diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (from Summers, 1996)
Depression • Possible causes of Depression: • Disease • Death of a loved once • Divorce • Loss of job • A break-up
World Health Organization • Nearly 450 million people suffer from mental or behavioral disorders • Disorders account for 15.4% of years lost due to death or disability
Psychological disorders • Psychological Disorders: Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns. • Remember the 3D’s
Most Universal Disorders Schizophrenia Depression
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • ADHD : a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age7 of one or more of three key symptoms; extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
ADHD Prevalence • Mostly males are diagnosed with ADHD • In the past 20 years the number of diagnoses have tripled • Some doubt the legitimacy of the disorder due to this
Treating ADHD • ADHD is potentially heritable • Ritalin and Adderall are stimulants used to treat ADHD symptoms
Children with ADHD • Children with ADHD appear to have delayed pruning but when it occurs, however, kids can mature later into normal adults.
The mistreatment of the mentally ill • Over the last two centuries, the mentally ill were caged, beaten, castrated, got holes drilled in their skull, had teeth removed, and more.
PhillippePinel • Insisted mental disorders were sickness of the mind caused by stress and inhumane conditions, not demons • Made great strides to help serve justice to the mentally ill
The Medical Model • Medical Model : the concept that diseases, in this case psychological, can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
Biopsychosocial • Biopsychosocial approach contends that all behaviors are an interaction of genetics and experiences
Cultural Disorders • Susto: a condition marked by severe anxiety, restlessness, and a gear of black magic. It is prevalent in Latin America. • TaijinKyofusho: Social anxiety about one’s appearance combined with a readiness to blush and a fear of eye contact Commonly Found in Japan.
DSM-IV-TR • DSM-IV-TR: The American Psychiatric Association’s diagnostic and statistical mauel of mental disorders, fourth edition, with an updated “text revision”; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. • Goal: to describe and classify disorders, it does not explain why they occur or how they can be treated.
Criticisms • Criticisms of the DSM: • Casts too wide of a net for possible diagnosis • The number of disorder categories has swelled considerably
Strengths According to Seligman • Six clusters of 24 strengths: wisdom and knowledge, courage, love, justice, temperance, and transcendence. • Seligman came up with this
Rosenhan Experiment • Labels create preconceptions that guide our perceptions and our interpretations. • David Rosenhan experiment: Rosenhan and 7 other perfectly healthy men went to a hospital claiming they heard voices in their heads. They answered follow up questions truthfully and normally, yet all were misdiagnosed with a disorder.
Labels • Pros of labeling disorders: health professionals can use labels to communicate about their cases and to discern treatment. • Cons: can create bias and self-fulfilling prophecy
The majority of individuals with psychological disorders are not violent. • 16% of US jai land prison inmates have sever mental disorders
Andrea Yates Jail or hospital? Two weeks after being taken off antipsychotic medication by her psychiatrist, Andrea Yates drowned her five children, ages 7, 5, 3, 2, and 6 months, in her bathtub, apparently believing she was sparing them “the fires of hell.” Although she was psychotic, one jury rejected the insanity defense, believing Yates still could have discerned right from wrong. On retrial, a second jury found her not guilty by reason of insanity.AP Photo
Anxiety disorders: psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistentanxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. • 5 anxiety disorders: • Generalized anxiety disorder • Panic disorder • Phobias • Obsessive compulsive disorder • Post traumatic stress disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Generalized anxiety disorder: a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. • 2/3 of those with this disorder are women • May lead to high blood pressure or ulcers
Panic Attacks • Panic attack: a minutes-long episode of intense fear that something horrible is going to happen. • Tremble • Dizziness • Choking sensation • May be perceived as A heart attack
Phobias • Phobia: an intense, irrational fear of something. Agoraphobia: a fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable.
Anxiety Disorders • Common and uncommon fears
Anxiety Disorders • PET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/ Compulsive disorder • High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened that comes with…..depression, anxiety, paranoia, mood swings • Possible causes: rape, war, torture, kidnapping, attacks etc. • After 9/11 8.5% of Manhattan residents has PTSD • Heavy combat Vietnam survivors had 32% PTSD • A sensitive limbic system makes one more susceptible to PTSD • On the other hand: holocaust survivior became more empathetic, responsible, and developed larger capacities for caring after their traumatic experiences “Post Traumatic Growth”
Characteristics of Phobias • Using classical conditioning, researchers created anxious, ulcer-prone rats by giving them unpredictable electric shocks • Stimulus generalization: attacked by one dog but fear all different breeds of dogs • Naturally selected fears: spiders, snakes, closed spaces, darkness storms, heights. • Genes affect fears due to temperament; identical twins usually have the same anomocity of fear and feared subjects.
Somatoform Disorder • Somatoform disorder: a psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic form with out apparent physical cause. • Vomiting • Dizziness • Blurred vision • Prolonged pain
Conversion Disorder • Conversion disorder: a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found • Real physical symptoms • Blindness • Inability to swallow
Hypochondriasis • Hypochondriasis: a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. I have a headache ..is it cancer?
Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative disorders: disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated dissociated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings • Forget previous experiences • Often in response to stress
Dissociation: to become separate • Dissociation is not rare • Comparable to an “out of body” experience • Freud might call this phenomenon repression
Dissociative Identity Disorder • D.I.D: A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder • Each personality may have its own distinct qualities • Individuals are not aware or this personality switch
The Hillside Strangler • Kenneth Bianchi the “Hillside Strangler” was accused of the rape and murder of 10 women in California in 1984 • Faked a Dissociative Identity Disorder in court to attempt to escape a jail sentence • The faults in his act were seen; he was figured out and was convicted
Nicholas Spanos • Asked college students to pretend they were accused murderers being examined by psychiatrist. • Most spontaneously expressed a second personality • “Are dissociative identities simply a more extreme version of our capacity to vary the ‘selves’ we present? “
DID is overly diagnosed • In the 1980’s the number of DID diagnosis skyrocketed to nearly 20,000 • Number of personalities mushroomed: 3% to 12% per patient • Outside North America this disorder is almost non existent
Ophthalmologists • These therapists have detected that shifting visual activity and eye muscles balance as people switched personalities • Heightened brain activity in brain areas for control and inhibition of traumatic memories • Some therapists “fish” for multiple personalities
Views of DID • Psychoanalysts see DID as defenses against the anxiety caused by the eruption of unacceptable impulses • Learning theorists think it is a type of reinforcement
Mood Disorders • Mood disorders are marked by emotional extremes • People are most Susceptible to Depression in the winter
Major Depressive Disorder • Major Depressive Disorder • a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Depression • Symptoms: • Discouraged about the future • Dissatisfied with life • Socially isolated • 44% college kids report Being depressed
Depression Characteristics • Depression is the leading cause of disability world wide • Depression is usually a response to past and current loss • 1 in 4 people who are depressed are ismply struggling with normal emotional impact of a significant loss
Major Depressive Disorder • a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Mood Disorders-Depression • Canadian depression rates
Bipolar Disorder • Manic Episode • a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state • Bipolar Disorder • a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania • formerly called manic-depressive disorder