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Roman Citizenship versus Jewish Identity! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Roman Citizenship versus Jewish Identity!. What have the Romans ever done for us….!. Essential Vocabulary. Citizen: A member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection.

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essential vocabulary
Essential Vocabulary
  • Citizen: A member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection.
  • City-State: A state that is made up of a self-governing city and surrounding territories
  • Economy: The management of the resources of a country or community.
  • Ideology: A body of beliefs that guide an individual, social movement, or large group.
  • Treason: The act of trying to overthrow one’s government or to harm or kill its ruler.
  • Civic: Relating to citizenship or city life.
the use of hard and soft power
The use of HARD and SOFT power!


using military and economic means to influence the behavior or interests of others. It is often in response to short and immediate crises;


the ability of a political body (state) to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of others through cultural or ideological means. Soft power is applied consistently over long periods of time.

examples of hard power
  • The threat of military force
  • Military Invasion
  • Military Occupation
  • Spy networks
  • Economic Sanctions
  • Trade embargoes
examples of soft power
Examples of soft power

What examples of hard and soft power

exist in the world around you?

  • Diplomacy
  • Propaganda
  • Popular Culture and Media
  • Economic Aid
  • Language
  • Literature and art
how did the idea of citizenship help to extend roman power
How did the idea of ‘Citizenship’ help to extend Roman power?
  • One of the main reasons for Rome’s success in building an Empire (that and a powerful army…)
  • Roman citizenship given to those that accepted Roman rule
  • Extended even to slaves when freed.
roman citizenship was based upon
Roman citizenship was based upon….
  • Duties
  • Military service
  • Taxes
  • Rights

- Right to vote (suffragium)

- Right to make contracts (commercium)

- Right to contract a legal marriage (conubium)

- Right to sue

- Right to stand trial

- Right not to be subject to torture or scourging.

- A Roman citizen could not be condemned to death unless found guilty of treason.

how could you acquire roman citizenship
How could you acquire Roman Citizenship?
  • Birth: every child born from a legal marriage of a Roman citizen had citizenship
  • Manumission: the act by which a slave was freed; children of former slaves were Roman citizens
  • Military service: upon enrollment in the army, or upon honorable discharge.
  • Imperial grants: the emperors could grant citizenship to individuals or to entire communities

So, what was so great

about being a Roman?

jewish roman wars
Jewish-Roman wars

63b.c.e: Roman general Pompey subdues Judea

and turns it into a client kingdom.

37b.c.e: Herod the Great becomes the King of the Jews,

appointed by the Roman Senate; Judea becomes a client

kingdom of the Roman Empire.

6c.e: Caesar Augustus deposes King Archelaus and establishes

Judea as a Roman province.

66c.e: Jewish forces defeat a Roman legion at Beth-Horon.

70c.e: The city of Jerusalem and its great temple are destroyed by

the Romans.

73c.e: Jewish rebels are defeated by the Romans at the fortress of


132-135 C.E: The Bar-kokhba revolt is the final Jewish rebellion

against the Romans.

Jews are forbidden from entering Jerusalem, and the

Romans re- name Judea “Syria palaestina”.

why did many jewish people reject roman citizenship
Why did many Jewish people reject Roman citizenship?
  • Roman taxes made Jewish peasants and artisans poorer.
  • angered by Greek religious practices close to synagogues.
  • Romans gave greater preference to Greek/Syrian communities.
  • Romans exerted authority over the Jewish priesthood.
but are these the only reasons
But are these the only reasons?
  • Could not accept Roman religious practices.
  • Could not accept the idea of the emperor as ‘god-like’ (deceased emperors).
  • Placed their duties to their religion and community above Roman civic and legal duties.
  • It was their homeland!
why didn t the two cultures get along
Why didn’t the two cultures get along?

So why did ancient Jewish peoples

so violently reject Roman rule?


  • Angered by cultures that said their god/beliefs were superior.
  • Ultimate loyalty was to Rome and the emperor.
  • Human improvement was through civic duty.

Jewish people:

  • Their God was the ‘true’ God.
  • Ultimate loyalty was to God.
  • Human improvement was through worship and your relationship with God and your community.
celtic timeline

387 B.C.E: Celtic tribes sack Rome.

225 B.C.E: Celts from Northern Italy are defeated by the Romans.

125 B.C.E: Celtic tribes in Southern Gaul are defeated by the Romans.

58-52 B.C.E: Celtic tribes in Gaul rebel against the Romans. The Roman Army, led by Julius Caesar, slaughter hundreds of thousands of Celtic people.

43 C.E: The Romans invade Celtic Britain.

60-61 C.E: Celts in Britain rebel against the Romans. They are led by a Celtic queen called Boudicca.

who were the celts
  • A group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from Britain to Central Europe .
  • The name ‘Celt’ originates from the greek word keltoi, which means “Barbarian”.
  • Celtic society was controlled by nobles called ‘chieftains’ and priests called ‘druids’
  • Celtic culture was a warrior culture.
  • Lived in villages surrounding Hill-Forts.
  • Developed advanced agricultural practices, metal-working skills: monetary systems (coinage), road networks.
why did celtic and german tribes reject roman culture
Why did Celtic and German tribes reject Roman culture?
  • Already had a developed culture (settled agriculture, established religion, codes of law, art…)
  • Authority and power of local rulers was taken away and given to Roman officials.
  • Resources and riches produced by their people made Rome and Roman merchants richer.
  • Romans ignored and disrespected aspects of Celtic culture (role of Women..).
  • Roman taxes made their people poorer.
  • It was their homeland!
the celts jews and germanians rejected roman power and roman culture so what25
The Celts, Jews, and germanians rejected Roman power and Roman Culture . So what?
  • It helps us to understand how some civilizations can conquer and control other civilizations.
  • It helps us to see why one culture rejects the power and influence of another culture.
  • Provides a framework for understanding how modern nations and cultures relate to each other:

- Who has power of who?

- Why do they want this power?

- How is this power maintained?

- Why is this power rejected?