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Fermion Masses and Unification. Steve King University of Southampton. Lecture 2. Grand Unified Theories SU(5) Pati-Salam SO(10) Proton decay with triplets Appendix on group theory. Grand Unified Theories (GUTs).

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Fermion masses and unification

Fermion Masses and Unification

Steve King

University of Southampton

Lecture 2

Lecture 2

Grand Unified Theories




Proton decay with triplets

Appendix on group theory

Fermion masses and unification

Grand Unified Theories (GUTs)

Basic idea is to embed the SM gauge group into a simple gauge group G with a single coupling constant, broken at a high energy scale

  • Motivations

  • Continuation of process of unification of physics starting with Maxwell

  • Remarkable fit of SM multiplets into Pati-Salam, SU(5), SO(10), E6…

  • Unification of gauge couplings at high energy scale MGUT

  • Charge quantization: equality of electron and proton charges

  • High energy fermion mass relations e.g. mb=m

Fermion masses and unification

Georgi and Glashow


With the hypercharge embedding

Each family fits nicely into the SU(5) multiplets

N.B in minimal SU(5) neutrino masses are zero.

Right-handed neutrinos may be added to give neutrino masses but they are not predicted.

Fermion masses and unification

Higgs Sector of SU(5)

Candidate Higgs reps of SU(5) are contained in matter bilinears constructed from 5* and 10

Minimal suitable Higgs reps for fermion masses consist of 5H + 5*H

Fermion masses and unification

Fermion Masses in SU(5)

The Yukawa superpotential for one family with Higgs H=5, H*=5*


almost good

c.f. Georgi-Jarlskog relations at MGUT:

Fermion masses and unification

Breaking SU(5)

The smallest Higgs rep which contains a singlet under the SM subgroup is the 24 Higgs rep and is a candidate to break SU(5)

The Higgs superpotential involving the minimal Higgs sector of SU(5) consisting of the 24H plus H=5H plus H*=5H*

With some tuning (see later) one can achieve light Higgs doublets which can develop weak scale vevs v5¿ v24

Fermion masses and unification

Proton Decay in Non-SUSY SU(5)

Gauge bosons in adjoint of SU(5) contain SM gauge bosons G,W,B plus new gauge bosons X,Y

Decay modes

Fermion masses and unification

Proton Decay in SUSY SU(5)

There are also in addition dimension 5 proton decay operators arising from colour triplet exchange (see later)

However the main drawback of SU(5) is that it does not predict right-handed neutrinos….

Fermion masses and unification

-- Predicts RH neutrinos with lepton number as the “fourth colour”

-- Allows the possibility of restoring parity if LR symmetry is imposed

-- (Quark-lepton) unification of 16 family into two LR symmetric reps

-- B-L as a gauge symmetry

-- Quantization of electric charge  Qe= -Qp

-- Pati-Salam can be unified into SO(10)

Pati-Salam Partial Unification

Fermion masses and unification

Symmetry Breaking of Pati-Salam colour”

In order to achieve the desired symmetry breaking

We introduce Higgs:

Electroweak symmetry breaking is then achieved via the Higgs bidoublet:

Fermion masses and unification

Fermion Masses in Pati-Salam colour”

The Yukawa superpotential for one family

at the GUT scale

Could work for the third family, but certainly not for all three families

at the GUT scale is bad

at the GUT scale is almost good

Fermion masses and unification

Georgi-Jarlskog Textures colour”

Consider the following texture

Gives good SUSY relations at MGUT:

Such a texture can be achieved from the superpotential


Gives GJ factor of -3 for the lepton

Fermion masses and unification

SO(10) GUT colour”

Georgi; Fritzsch and Minkowski

The 16 of SO(10) contains a single quark and lepton family and also predicts a single right-handed neutrino per family.

The SU(5) reps are unified into SO(10):

The two Higgs doublets are contained in a 10 of SO(10)

Fermion masses arise from the coupling

c.f. Pati-Salam

Fermion masses and unification

Neutrino masses in SO(10) colour”

Dirac mass

Heavy Majorana mass

SO(10) contains all the ingredients for the see-saw mechanism and tends to predict a hierarchical pattern of neutrino masses

Fermion masses and unification

Troublesome Colour Triplet Higgs colour”

Low energy MSSM Higgs doublets must be embedded into representations of the GUT group

This Leads to new (colour triplet) particles D


All give new colour triplet particles:

Spoil Unification of MSSM gauge couplings




Cause rapid proton decay

Fermion masses and unification

Proton Decay with Triplet Higgs colour”

Say representation of

And quarks and leptons representation of

To produce SM Yukawa terms one generally uses terms

Gives following SM interactions:

But also gives ‘dangerous’ terms involving with SM particles:

Proton decay

Fermion masses and unification

D-exchange generates superfield operators colour”

In terms of scalar and fermion components some examples of dangerous operators are shown below

Fermion masses and unification

Proton Decay with Dim 5 Operators colour”

Thus p» MGUT2 Msoft2 instead of MGUT4

Minimal SU(5) turns out to be ruled out by proton decay -- but it gives unacceptable fermion masses anyway

Fermion masses and unification

Nevzorov colour”