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Division and Unification. Multistate system emerged in the Eastern Zhou The Spring and Autumn Period The Warring States Period Reasons for wars Scramble for power to secure the status of “hegemony” Maintain a balance of power Attack from northern tribes deemed as “barbarians”

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division and unification
Division and Unification
  • Multistate system emerged in the Eastern Zhou
    • The Spring and Autumn Period
    • The Warring States Period
  • Reasons for wars
    • Scramble for power to secure the status of “hegemony”
    • Maintain a balance of power
    • Attack from northern tribes deemed as “barbarians”
    • Succession dispute
  • Large Infantry armies became potent military force
    • Large corps of crack troops
    • Powerful crossbows
    • Armor and helmets
    • Portable ladders used to scale the wall
    • Tunnel ambush
    • Chariot
    • Cavalry
economy and society
Economy and Society
  • Agricultural output increased
  • Iron technology developed

Wall cities appeared

  • Social classes formed
    • Shi: scholars
    • Nong: peasants
    • Gong: artisans
    • Shang: merchants
historical maps of china
Historical Maps of China

Qin Unification of China—(211-206 BCE)

The First Chinese Dynasty


Ying Zheng and His Highly centralized government

    • Confiscated weapons
    • Melted down iron to cast bell hangers
    • Melted down bronze objects and turned them into a dozen massive statues in capital

The First Emperor, by

Yan Liben, Tang Dynasty

Monopolized salt, iron, and alcohol
  • Standardized Qin coinage and unit of gold, along with weights and measures, axle length of carts
  • Unified scripts—”Small Seal” script
Lunched large public work projects
    • Walls
    • Canals
    • Roads
    • The Mausoleum
  • Qin Law: characterized by harsh capital punishment
    • Hard labor, mutilation, banishment, slavery, execution
    • Cruel forms of mutilation and execution

Ruin of Qin Wall


Gaozu, Han

Wudi, Han


confucians and confucianism
Confucians and Confucianism
  • The meaning of “Confucian”
    • Latinization of Master Kong (K’ung Fu-tzu, 551-479 BCE) resulted in “Confucius”
    • From Confucius comes “Confucian” and “Confucianism”
  • Confucians: translation of Rú (Ju)
    • learned persons, scholars
    • Men who demonstrated good learning, cultural refinement, moral and decorous conduct
  • Exemplary Rú before Confucius
    • The Duke of Zhou (Chou)

Confucius and His Lecture

By Ma Yuan, Song Dynasty

sources of confucianism
Sources of Confucianism
  • The Six Classics
    • The Classic of Changes (Yijing, I-ching)
    • The Classic of History (Shujing, Shu-ching)
    • The Classic of Odes (or Poetry) (Shijing, Shih-ching)
    • The Rites
      • Contains the Record of Rites (Liji or Li-chi) and the Rites of Zhou (Chou)
    • The Spring and Autumn Annals (Chunqiu or Chun-ch’iu)
    • The Music (Yue, Yueh)
The Four Books:
    • The Analects
      • Collection of Confucius’ sayings
    • The Mencius
    • The Mean
    • The Great Learning
  • Other sources:
    • The Xunzi (Hsun-tzu)
confucius and the analects
Confuciusand the Analects
  • Confucius (Master Kong):
    • Perpetuator of the classical tradition, i.e., the culture of the History, the Odes….
    • The greatest teacher and educator who taught how to perfect human conduct, or how to make one an “honorable person” (Junzi, chun-tzu)
      • One who is possessed of humanity and has no anxieties, is wise and has no doubts, and is strong (Courageous) and has no fears
Main themes of the text:
    • Interpersonal relationships
    • Personal cultivation
    • The proper human conduct and disposition of the Junzi(chun-tzu)
      • Moral cultivation and integrity
      • Filial devotion (xiao, hsiao), humaneness (ren, jen) and ritual decorum (li)
    • Virtues and heaven (the mandate of)
    • Ritual, sacrifice, and spirits
    • The Way: humaneness, righteousness
filiality filial piety
Filiality (Filial Piety)
  • “Nowadays, filial piety is considered to be the ability to nourish one’s parents. But this obligation to nourish even extends down to the dogs and horses. Unless we have reverence for our parents, what makes us any different?”
  • “When your father is alive, observe his intentions. When he is deceased, model yourself on the memory of his behavior. If in three years after his death your have not deviated from your father’s ways, then you may be considered a filial child.”
“Do not offend your parents”
  • “When your parents are alive, serve them according to the rules of ritual and decorum. When they are deceased, give them a funeral and offer sacrifices to them according to the rules of ritual and decorum”
  • “When your father and mother are alive, do not go rambling around far away. If you must travel, make sure you have a set destination.”
“It is unacceptable not to be aware of your parents’ ages. Their advancing years are a cause for your joy and at the same time a cause for sorrow.”
  • “You can be of service to your father and mother by remonstrating with them tactfully. If you perceive that they do not wish to follow your advice, then continue to be reverent toward them without offending or disobeying them; work hard and do not murmur against them.
the honorable person
The Honorable Person
  • “Isn’t one truly an honorable person if one is not acknowledged by others yet still does not resent it?”
  • “Honorable people are modest in what they say but surpassing in what they do.”
  • “There are three aspects to the way of the honorable person, but I am incapable of them: to be possessed of humanity and have no anxieties, to be wise and have no doubts, and to be strong and have no fears.”
the honorable person1
The Honorable Person
  • The honorable person must exert caution in three areas. When he is a youth and his blood and spirit have not yet settled down, he must be on his guard lest he fall into lusting. When he reaches the full vigor of his manhood in his thirties and his blood and spirit are strong, he must guard against getting into quarrels. When he reaches old age and his blood and spirit have begun to weaken, he must guard against envy.
ritual li
  • “when you go out, treat everyone as if your were welcoming a great guest. Employ people as thought you were conducting a great sacrifice. Do not do unto others what your would not have them do unto you. Then neither in your country nor in your family will there be complaints against you.”
  • “respect without ritual is tiresome; caution without ritual is timidity; boldness without ritual is insubordination; straightforwardness without ritual is rudeness.”
  • “Ritual performed without reverence and mourning performed without grief are things I cannot bear”
evolution of confucianism mencius
Evolution of Confucianism: Mencius
  • Mencius (385?-312? BCE), Master Meng (Mengzi, Meng-tzu), first successor to Confucius
  • The Mencius
    • A record of conversations between Mencius and rulers of the contending feudal states, disciples, and philosophical adversaries

Main themes:

  • Humaneness and righteousness (rightness); human nature; heart & mind, moral effort and qi (ch’i); self-cultivation; ruler, governance, and society
  • Human’s ability to develop innate predispositions; all the qualities necessary to perfect human beings are complete within oneself; one has to seek for and realize these lost qualities
Ideas that inspired and influenced later intellectuals the most
    • Kingly way based on humaneness vs. hegemonic way based on power and force
    • Everyone is potential Yao and Shun—everyone can attain sagehood
    • Ruler, if humane, is called “king”; otherwise, he is “tyranny”; tyranny can be deposed
    • Righteousness takes precedence over profits
    • Theory of moralism based on the four minds: the mind of commiseration, of shame, of respect/reverence, and that distinguishes right and wrong
    • The people are of greatest importance, the altars of the soil are next, and the ruler is of least importance
evolution of confucianism xunzi
Evolution of Confucianism: Xunzi
  • Xunzi, Master Xun (ca. 310BCE; Hsun-tzu)
  • The Xunzi
    • A collection of coherent and systematic essays
    • Topics cover learning,self-cultivation, government, military affairs, Heaven or Nature, ritual, language, human nature…
  • Challenged Mencius’ conception of human nature as fundamentally good
  • Reaffirmed Confucian values: learning, human refinement, culture, and self perfection
    • Making conscious effort to become good
  • Emphasized social order and hierarchy; ritual-based community organization
the confucian tradition
The Confucian Tradition
  • Principal elements:
    • Junzi (Chun-tzu), noble person,
    • Human relationship
    • Filial piety
    • Humaneness
    • Government service
    • Mandate of Heaven
    • Rightness (righteousness) takes precedence over profits
    • Human potential for goodness/badness
    • Learning, education, and ritual
Sage kings and ordered world
    • Benevolent government
    • Tyrants can be deposed
    • People has right to revolt
  • Hierarchical society
  • Economical livelihood
  • Public service
  • Learning and self-cultivation