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Nationalism and Unification. Beginnings of modern Europe. Nationalism. The rise of nationalism was a powerful force behind European politics during the nineteenth century. Widespread demands for political rights led to revolutions and legislative actions in Europe.

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nationalism and unification

Nationalism and Unification

Beginnings of modern Europe

nationalism
Nationalism
  • The rise of nationalism was a powerful force behind European politics during the nineteenth century.
  • Widespread demands for political rights led to revolutions and legislative actions in Europe.
  • How did nationalism and democracy influence national revolutions?
  • Nationalism – The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation – that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and a history, rather than to a king or ruler.
nationalism and democratic influence
Nationalism and Democratic influence
  • National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism.
  • The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe, especially in Italy and the German states. Unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 increased nationalistic tensions.
nationalism a force for unity or disunity
Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity
  • Two Views of Nationalism
    • Nationalists use their common bonds to build nation-states
    • Rulers eventually use nationalism to unify their subjects
    • Three different types of nationalist movements:
      • unification merges culturally similar lands
      • separation splits off culturally distinct groups
      • state-building binds separate cultures into one
nationalism and democratic influence1
Nationalism and Democratic influence
  • In contrast to continental Europe, the United Kingdom expanded political rights through legislative means and made slavery illegal in the British Empire.
case study italy
Case Study: Italy
  • Cavour Leads Italian Unification(Northern Italy)
    • Camillo di Cavour—prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1852
    • Gets French help to win control of Austrian-controlled Italian land
case study italy1
Case Study: Italy
  • Garibaldi Brings Unity
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi—leads nationalists who conquer southern Italy
    • Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite southern Italy with Sardinia
    • Garibaldi steps aside, allowing the king of Sardinia to rule
    • Control of Venetia and Papal States finally unites Italy
unification of italy
Unification of Italy
  • What events led to the unification of Italy?
  • Count Cavour unified northern Italy.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.
  • The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.
case study germany
Case Study: Germany
  • Bismarck Unites Germany
    • Beginning in 1815, thirty-nine German states form the German Confederation
  • Prussia Leads German Unification
    • Prussia has advantages that help it to unify Germany
      • mainly German population
      • powerful army
      • creation of liberal constitution
case study germany1
Case Study: Germany
  • Bismarck Takes Control
    • Junkers—conservative wealthy landowners—support Prussian Wilhelm I
    • Junker realpolitik master Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister
    • Realpolitik—power politics without room for idealism
    • Bismarck defies Prussian parliament
unification of germany
Unification of Germany
  • What role did Otto von Bismarck play in the unification of Germany?
  • Otto van Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings.
  • Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik,which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
  • The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the German state.
case study germany2
Case Study: Germany
  • The Franco-Prussian War
    • Bismarck provokes war with France to unite all Germans
    • Wilhelm is crowned Kaiser—emperor of a united Germany—at Versailles
    • Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian dominance.
realpolitik means
Realpolitik: means….

“Do whatever it takes to git ‘er done!”

“You must have read my book!”

a shift in power
A Shift in Power
  • Balance Is Lost
    • In 1815 the Congress of Vienna established five powers in Europe:
      • Austria
      • Prussia
      • Britain
      • France
      • Russia
    • By 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much power
    • Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically