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Contemporary Europe. Europe Stats. Europe is home to 1/7 of the World’s population (this includes Russia) Currently 47 countries in Europe Very Urban (72%) Population growth: Stagnate or shrinking Estimated population trends: 2000: 875 million 2050: 765 million. Size: US and Europe.

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europe stats
Europe Stats
  • Europe is home to 1/7 of the World’s population (this includes Russia)
  • Currently 47 countries in Europe
  • Very Urban (72%)
  • Population growth:
    • Stagnate or shrinking
    • Estimated population trends:
      • 2000: 875 million
      • 2050: 765 million
eu timeline
EU Timeline
  • 1952 six countries created a common market for steel and coal called the European Coal and Steel Community
    • These guys are known as the “Inner Six” in the EU: Belgium, Germany (West), France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands
  • 1958 the same countries created the European Economic Community
    • became known as the Common market
  • 1993 the 12 Common Market Countries formed the EU
  • Currently there are 27 countries in the EU; Croatia is scheduled to join as 28 in June 2013
  • In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
    • "that dreadful suffering in World War II demonstrated the need for a new Europe [...] today war between Germany and France is unthinkable. This shows how, through well-aimed efforts and by building up mutual confidence, historical enemies can become close partners” –The Nobel Committee
the european union
The European Union
  • Supranational organization
    • “Supra” means over or on top of, the EU is over the national governments
  • Goals of the EU
    • Peace, prosperity, and economic well being (FAIL)
    • Create jobs, protect citizens’ rights, preserve environment
forces within the eu
Forces within the EU

Forces Uniting the EU

Forces Dividing the EU

W. Europe is wealthier than East

Money goes to aid poorer countries

Workers in West tend to be paid more

Lead to workers moving to wealthier countries

Businesses move to poorer countries

  • Euro
  • Large Trade Bloc makes it a very tempting market for outside nations
  • Works to develop resources
  • Upgrade highways and transportation
  • Modernization of farms
governance of the eu
Governance of the EU
  • Seven Major Institutions
    • The European Parliament and The Council of the EU (In Brussels)
      • Legislators; make, scrutinize, and carry out laws
    • The European Commission and The European Council (In Brussels)
      • Carries our executive tasks
      • The Council is a meeting of the leaders of Europe
    • The European Central Bank (In Frankfurt)
      • Monetary policy, Euro
    • The Court of Justice of the EU (In Luxembourg)
      • Interpretation of Law and treaties
    • The European Court of Auditors (In Luxembourg)
      • EU budget

*Brussels is the nominal capital of the EU*

eurozone crisis
Eurozone Crisis
  • 17 of the EU countries adopted the Euro in 2002 (it was announced in 1999)
  • The countries whose interest rates fell most as a result of the euro are Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, and Italy (see where this is going?)
  • These countries began borrowing loads of money
  • After the financial crisis, governments in these countries had to bail out their banks in order to prevent systemic failure
    • increased the already high levels of public debt to a unsustainable rate, increasing government bond interest rates
    • Known as the sovereign debt crisis or Eurozone crisis
sovereign debt crisis
Sovereign Debt Crisis
  • US economic crisis in 2008 (bad times)
  • Led to financial crisis in Europe
  • Iceland’s banks completely failed and their government collapsed. They are better now.
  • Germany bailed out the poorer countries so the Euro would not collapse
    • Put Austerity measures into place
    • Led to tension and riots
  • Currently the Euro looks like it will survive, but there is still tension due to the austerity plans
the united nations
The United Nations
  • We’ve mentioned the UN quite a bit in this class, but what is it?
  • Purpose of the UN (quoted from the UN Charter)
    • to maintain international peace and security;
    • to develop friendly relations among nations;
    • to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights;
    • and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.
who is in it
Who is in it?
  • Currently has 193 members
  • The UN Headquarters are in NYC with other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna.
  • Six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish
  • So, who’s not in the UN?
    • Vatican City is a Permanent Observer
    • Palestine was recognized as a "non-member state" on 29 November 2012
    • Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008 but has not gained complete international recognition to allow it to become a member of the United Nations because Russia will block it.
    • Taiwan (The Republic of China) is excluded because China will not allow its acceptance by the UN Security Council where it holds a permanent veto right
organization of the un
Organization of the UN
  • General Assembly: The International Forum
    • All member nations have one vote
    • Powers
      • Discuss international problems
      • Make recommendations to nations and other bodies of the UN
      • Elect members of to other UN bodies
      • Suspend members violating UN principles
      • (there are a few other things, but these are the main ones)
    • Meets once a year for about three months
security council
Security Council
  • The executive body
  • Membership:
    • Five of them are permanent members: China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States.
    • 10 are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms
    • The adoption of a Council decision requires nine votes in favour.
      • cannot adopt a decision if one of the permanent members casts a veto *this is why Kosovo and Taiwan aren’t in the UN*
  • Powers
    • Investigate disputes that endanger world peace
    • Make recommendations for peace
    • Call upon nations to take economic (sanctions) or military actions
  • Security Council functions constantly
other bodies
Other Bodies
  • Secretariat
    • Led by Secretary General (currently Ban Ki-Moon); performs administrative work
    • Present the Security council anything threatening world peace, Diplomatic missions, UN emergency military forces
  • International Court of Justice
    • 15 judges that settle legal disputes between nations
  • Trusteeship Council (no longer functioning) to protect colonial people
agencies of the un
Agencies of the UN
  • UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Org.)
    • Seeks to raise educational awareness to combat ignorance and prejudice
  • WHO (World Health Org.)
    • Combats epidemics, health conditions
  • World Bank
    • Provides loans and technical assistance to developing countries to reduce poverty and advance sustainable economic growth.
  • UNICEF (UN Int’l Children’s Emergency Fund)
    • Provides food, vitamins, medicine to needy children; educates mothers
  • Peacekeepers
    • The UN sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently occurred to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage resuming hostilities.
    • The UN does not maintain its own military, forces are voluntarily provided by member states
    • The forces are widely known for their blue UN helmets
  • Currently there are 15 peacekeeping missions
  • military alliance signed on 4 April 1949
  • Currently 28 Countries
  • collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
  • NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009.
  • The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the world's defense spending.
nato military intervention
NATO: Military Intervention
  • conducted their first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and later Yugoslavia in 1999.
    • effort to stop Slobodan Milošević's Serbian-led crackdown on Albanian civilians in Kosovo
  • The September 2001 attacks signaled the only occasion in NATO's history that Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty has been invoked as an attack on all NATO members
    • After the attack, troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF,
    • International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), often called the Coalition Forces, is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan established by the UN Security Council in December 2001
more nato military
More NATO Military
  • 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya
  • Article 4, invokes consultation among NATO members has been invoked three times, and only by Turkey:
    • once in 2003 over the Second Iraq War,
    • twice in 2012 over the Syrian civil war after the downing of an unarmed Turkish F-4 reconnaissance jet and after a mortar was fired at Turkey from Syria.
  • Europe’s population is shrinking
    • Has the oldest population
    • Has the lowest birth rate
  • Why?
    • Living expenses are high in Europe
    • Both parents work
    • Better contraceptives
population problems
Population Problems
  • Negative Growth
    • Hurts economy: Less teachers, schools, kid’s products
    • Less workers, businesses may move
    • Fewer people in military
  • Aging Population
    • Pensions (retirement)
    • Higher healthcare costs
  • Declining Workforce
    • Not enough workers
    • Fewer workers=less taxes
interesting stuff
Interesting Stuff
  • Population
    • top ten most populous countries (in millions): China 1,343.24; India 1,205.07; United States 313.85; Indonesia 248.22; Brazil 205.72; Pakistan 190.29; Nigeria 170.12; Bangladesh 161.08; Russia 138.08; Japan 127.37 (July 2011 est.)
  • Median age
    • total: 28.4 years Birth rate
    • 19.14 births/1,000 population note: this rate results in about 252 worldwide births per minute or 4.2 births every second (2011 est.)
  • Urbanization
    • urban population: 50.5% of total population (2010) ten largest urban agglomerations: Tokyo - 36,669,000; Delhi - 22,157,000; Sao Paulo - 20,262,000; Mumbai - 20,041,000; Mexico City- 19,460,000; New York-Newark - 19,425,000; Shanghai - 16,575,000; Kolkata (India) - 15,552,000; Dhaka (Bangladesh) - 14,648,000; Karachi (Pakistan) - 13,125,000 (2009)
  • Life expectancy at birth
    • total population: 67.59 years male: 65.59 years female: 69.73 years (2011 est.)
  • Total fertility rate
    • 2.47 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  • Religions
    • Christian 33.35% , Muslim 22.43%, Hindu 13.78%, Buddhist 7.13%, Sikh 0.36%, Jewish 0.21%, Baha'i 0.11%, other religions 11.17%, non-religious 9.42%, atheists 2.04% (2009 est.)
  • Languages
    • Mandarin Chinese 12.44%, Spanish 4.85%, English 4.83%, Arabic 3.25%, Hindi 2.68%, Bengali 2.66%, Portuguese 2.62%, Russian 2.12%, Japanese 1.8%, Standard German 1.33%, Javanese 1.25% (2009 est.) Literacy
    • definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 83.7% male: 88.3% female: 79.2%
ethnic tensions
Ethnic Tensions
  • Basque
  • Balkans
  • Roma
basque people
Basque People
  • Northern Spain and Southern France
  • distinct ethnic group, culturally and linguistically distinct
    • Language is not Indo-European i.e. it is from pre-Roman/pre-Celtic times
  • Some Basques strongly nationalist
    • Many Basques regard designation as an "ethnic minority" as incomplete, seeing themselves as a nation
    • During the rule of Franco (1936-75)
    • Nowadays, extensive cultural and political autonomy
balkan people
Balkan People
  • Balkans is home to many different ethnic groups
  • Following the collapse of the Soviet Unions, rivalries arose between these ethnic groups
  • Four of Yugoslavia’s six republics declared independence in 1991-92: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Macedonia
  • Two remained behind the government in Belgrade: Sebia and Montenegro
  • Civil wars broke out (ethnic and religious) in Croatia and Bosnia
    • UN sent Peacekeepers

By 1995, Croatia had evicted most Serbs

  • 1995 peace treaty signed by Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia
    • Divided Bosnia into a Muslim-Croat federation
  • 1998, fighting broke out in Kosovo
    • Region in N. Serbia where ethnic Albanians 90% of Pop.
    • Ethnic Albanians began guerilla war for independence
    • President of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milosevic refused to give up Kosovo
      • Milosevic began “ethnic cleansing” against the Kosovars
      • NATO Peacekeepers sent in but no peace reached, NATO forces began air attacks in 1999
dailies contemporary
Dailies: Contemporary
  • What countries make up the UK? What is Great Britain?
  • Why was the EU originally formed?
  • How does the size of Europe compare with the US? The Population?
  • What are the major goals of the EU?
  • What does supranational mean?
  • What happened to Iceland during the financial crisis?
  • Which nations are NOT in the UN?
  • Why was the UN founded?
  • Who are the permanent members of the Security council?
  • What is the mission of the UN peacekeepers?