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Physical Environment and the Native Americans

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  1. Physical Environment and the Native Americans Image: Michigan Historical Museum

  2. 15,000 years ago, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered all of Michigan (maximum extent was 18,000 years ago) How did the Great Lakes form? About this same time, Indians were crossing the Bering Straits from Asia to North America Superior Lobe Chippewa Lobe Green Bay Lobe Saginaw Lobe Lake Michigan Lobe Huron-Erie Lobe

  3. Pleistocene Era (Wisconsin Period) The Great Lakes reached final size and shape 2,500 years ago. They are the single greatest influence on Michigan’s historical development. They facilitate water travel but hinder land travel. They provide fish. They affect climate and soils and thus agriculture. They drive tourism.

  4. Great Lakes: largest source of freshwater in the world (20% of world’s water, rest is in ice) • Agriculture: wide variety of fertile soils mainly in southern Michigan, sandy soil up north • Industry: Towns grow up next to rivers and lakes. • Minerals: Sand and gravel, salt, limestone, gypsum, iron, copper • Tourism: Lake and rivers used for recreation, transportation Glaciers created:

  5. 18,000 years ago – Laurentide ice sheet covered all of Michigan, and erased all evidence of prior humans living there • 11,000 years ago (9,000 BCE) – first evidence of Paleo-Indians around what is now Flint, MI • Hunted mastodons and caribou • Occupied southern Michigan asice receded The First Inhabitants of Michigan = Paleo-Indians (12,000 BCE – 8,000 BCE)

  6. 5,000 years ago (3000 BCE = Late Archaic) Mined copper by digging shallow pits still visible today Heated copper to make tools and weapons (first people in Western hemisphere to work with metals) Traded copper with people in New York, Illinois, and Kentucky The Old Copper Indians (Copper People) Native copper from the Keweenaw Peninsula

  7. 1,000 BCEto European contact in 1650 • Early (1,000 BCE – 1 BCE) • Middle(1 CE – 500 CE) • Late (500 – 1620) • Agriculture begins (squash, sunflowers) • Ceramic pots to store food • Corn introduced around 300 B.C. • Villages became larger The Woodland Period (The Woodland Indians)

  8. 1000 BCE – 1 BCE The existence of pottery marks the beginning Hunting and gathering still more important than agriculture Maize (corn) becomes most important crop as permanent settlements start Extensive burial mounds Adena culture was in the central Ohio Valley. They developed an extensive trading network with Indians in the Great Lakes for copper. Early Woodland Period The Miamisburg Mound is 70 feet high and was built 2,500 years ago.

  9. 1- 500 CE – Hopewell Indians (the “Mound Builders”) buried the dead in long, low mounds together with artifacts Over 1,000 mounds have been identified in Southern Michigan (Mound Road), but only a few still exist today (Norton Mounds in Grand Rapids) Middle Woodland Period Norton Mounds near Grand Rapids. There were 30 mounds originally, but only a few now.

  10. 500 – 1000 Used bow and arrows, which may have greatly decreased the large animals. Built defensive walls and ditches suggesting warfare for scarcer resources. Mound building largely ended Maize, beans and squash became staple crops Great Lakes Indians built wigwams (see next slide) Late Woodland PERIOD

  11. Young green tree saplings 10-15 feet long were cut down, and then bent by stretching the wood. The saplings formed a frame about 10-16 feet in diameter. Bark stripped from trees was used to cover the frame, creating walls and a roof. Wigwams

  12. 1492 – Columbus met the Arawak Indians on the island of “San Salvador” in the Bahamas Columbus “discovers” the New World “They are affectionate people and without covetousness and apt for anything, which I certify. I believe there is no better people or land in the world. They love their neighbors as themselves, and have the sweetest speech in the world, and gentle, and are always smiling.” “The Indians would make fine servants. With 50 men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.”

  13. Hernando Cortes brought guns and horses, conquered the Aztecs in Mexico • Francisco Pizzaroconquered the Incans in Peru • Spanish and Dutch were dominant in the South and Southwest U.S. • Sought riches, slaves, and “conversions” • Diseases from Europe (smallpox, tuberculosis, measles, etc.) reduced Indian population 50-90%, because they had no natural immunity. 1500s

  14. Estimated 100,000 Indians in upper Great Lakes region in 1600 when French first made contact (1 million in all of North America) 3 Linguistic Groups: Iroquoian (Eastern Indians) , Algonquian (Woodland Indians), and Siouan (Plains Indians) The French meet the Indians Algonquian Iroquoian Siouan

  15. Wyandots comes from their tribal name, Wendat, which means "peninsula people." Some Wyandot people in Oklahoma used the spelling Wyandotte instead. Huron was the French name for the Wyandot tribe. It means "wild boar" in French. The French thought that the Mohawk haircuts looked like the bristles on a wild boar's neck. • Population was 45-60,000 • Iroquoian Language, but mostly enemies of the Iroquois • Lived in Georgian Bay area, but were driven westward by the Iroquois after the 1649 war • Sedentary farmers (actually gardeners, with no work animals or farm equipment), so Europeans believed them to be the most advanced Indians • Fished for food and hunted primarily for hides for clothing • Matrilineal society, so women owned the houses Hurons (aka Wyandots)

  16. Call themselves the Anishinaabe (“original people”) • Chippewas, Ottawas, and Potawatomis (COPs) • Algonquian language, but culturally different • May have lived together in St. Lawrence region 1,000 years ago, but moved to Great Lakes area before European contact • Lived in small, mobile villages (5-25 families) relying on hunting and fishing. Gathered wild rice and grew corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers. • Clan system brought order. The Three Fires

  17. Algonquian language Population about 30,000 Lived around Lake Superior Highly nomadic, relied on hunting, fishing, and gathering “Elder brother” of the Three Fires Confederacy Patrilineal society Chippewas (Ojibwa)

  18. Algonquian language Lived in Northern Lake Huron region Only 3,000 people Hunted and fished more than farmed Got along well with the Hurons Traveled in birch bark canoes acting as middlemen between Chippewas and Hurons Ottawas (Ota’wa’ = “to trade”) Pontiac was the most famous Ottawa chief

  19. Algonquian language • 4,000 Indians • Practiced polygamy. Marriage brought together clans. • Lived in western part of Lower Peninsula • Attacked by Iroquois and “Neutrals” in the east during early 1600s, so left Michigan for Wisconsin. • In the late 1600s, Potawatomis and Miamis moved from Wisconsin to northern Indiana and Ohio, and southern Michigan. Potawatomis (“People of the Place of the Fire”)

  20. Wyandots comes from their tribal name, Wendat, which means "peninsula people." Some Wyandot people in Oklahoma used the spelling Wyandotte instead. Huron was the French name for the Wyandot tribe. It means "wild boar" in French. The French thought that the Mohawk haircuts looked like the bristles on a wild boar's neck. • Population was 45-60,000 • Iroquoian Language, but mostly enemies of the Iroquois • Lived in Georgian Bay area, but were driven westward by the Iroquois after the 1649 war • Sedentary farmers (actually gardeners, with no work animals or farm equipment), so Europeans believed them to be the most advanced Indians • Fished for food and hunted primarily for hides for clothing • Matrilineal society, so women owned the houses Hurons (Wyandots)

  21. Algonquian language • 4,500 Indians • Lived in southern Wisconsin • Culturally close to the Sac and Fox Indians • It comes from the Miami-Illinois word Myaamia, which means "allies." Miami, Florida got its name from a Tequesta placename, Maymi, which may have meant "wide lake.“ • The Miami Indians had their original home land in Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Ohio, but many moved west to Oklahoma in the mid 1800s. Miamis Little Turtle was the most famous chief

  22. Gender Roles Women Men Hunted Planted crops Gathered nuts, fruits Fished Made meals Traded Cared for children Made war Built the wigwam

  23. 1535 - Jacques Cartier sails up St. Lawrence River, certain it was the “Northwest Passage” to India. He called it the “Country of Canadas”, an Iroquois name for the two big settlements of Stadacona and Hochelaga. Found only fool’s gold and quartz (“Canadian diamonds”), but discovered the Ottawa River. The French “discover” Canada Stadacona became Quebec City Hochelaga became Montreal

  24. - Founded Quebec City in 1608 - Explored Georgian Bay - Wanted to create permanent settlements, not just fur trading posts. 1609 – Battle of Ticonderoga – French fight the Mohawks, part of the Iroquois Confederacy, who blocked French exploration of southern Michigan Samuel de ChamplainThe “Father of New France” Lake Champlain

  25. A young friend of Champlain’s, he lived with Algonquian Indians for many years, earning the distrust of the French Sailed on all the Great Lakes except Lake Michigan First European in Michigan when he reached the St. Mary’s River in 1622, two years after the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth Etienne Brule Both images:

  26. First European to sail through the Straits of Mackinac (past Mackinac Island) and into Lake Michigan Followed northern Lake Michigan until he reached Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1634 where encountered Winnebago Indians Jean Nicolet Called the “Father of Wisconsin,” Nicolet met the Indians in Green Bay dressed in a colorful silk robe thinking he landed in India.

  27. The Animal That Built Michigan Easy to kill with gun, spear, or arrow, or trapped Not migratory, so once supply was used up in an area, trappers had to move on North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) 10 million beavers in America at time of European contact, but were hunted to near extinction

  28. Coureur de Bois (“woodlands runner”) French-Canadian woodsman who was skilled at hunting, fishing, canoeing and snowshoeing Unlicensed fur trader (bootlegger) Provided many types of furs to Europe: bear, elk, deer, martin, fox, wolf, lynx, raccoon, but most important: BEAVER Convinced Indians to kill fur-bearing animals so as to trade with them Voyageurs were similar, but were licensed fur traders. Could travel 100 miles in a single day. Some explored rather than traded, so adopted Indian dress and language to ensure safe passage

  29. French felt superior to the “sauvages” • Indians liked the guns, blankets, iron kettles, but did not feel their culture was inferior • Animism = belief that inanimate objects were sacred • Missionaries did not separate the concept of Christianity and civilization, so their efforts were largely futile. • Private property vs. communal property • Indian language and Indians names are common for place names in Michigan, but are sometimes changed considerably (Michigan, Saginaw, Washtenaw, Kalamazoo, Mackinac, Muskegon, Ottawa, Chippewa, Gogebic, Topinabee, Pokagon, etc.) • Names of famous Indians (Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola) Whites and Native americans

  30. English dominated the eastern seaboard, while the French dominated Canada and the land west of the Appalachians • 1607 – Jamestown (Capt. John Smith saved by Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan) • 1610 – Henry Hudson discovered Hudson Bay in Canada, the second largest bay in the world other than the Bay of Bengal. • 1620 – Pilgrims land in Plymouth - First Thanksgiving in 1621 with Wampanoag Indians • 1664 – Seize New Netherlands from the Dutch, and rename it “New York” • 1675 – “King Philip’s War”- Wampanoags and other Eastern tribes fight British The English during the 1600s

  31. “Why will you take by force what you may obtain by love? Why will you destroy us who supply you with food? What can you get by war? We are unarmed, and willing to give you what you ask, if you come in a friendly manner.” - Chief Powhatan (to John Smith), 1609 John Rolfe married Chief Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas. John Rolfe planted tobacco from the West Indies, and started Virginia’s tobacco industry.

  32. 1609 – Englishman Henry Hudson “discovers” Manhattan while working for the Dutch East India Company. 1624 – Peter Minuit buys Manhattan from the Lenape Indians for 60 Dutch guilders ($24). 1625 – Build Fort Amsterdam, and call it their territory New Netherlands. 1652-54 – First Anglo-Dutch war – English won 1665-67 – Second Anglo-Dutch war – Dutch won 1672-74 – Third Anglo-Dutch war – English lost, but with French support The Dutch during the 1600s

  33. Jesuit missionary who founded the first permanent Michigan settlement in Sault Ste. Marie in 1668, and St. Ignacein 1671. Third oldest settlement west of the Appalachians. • Helped Louis Jolliet explore the Mississippi River in 1673. • Louis’ older brother, Adrien Jolliet, became the first white man to visit the Lower Peninsula when he paddled down the Detroit River in 1669. • Died in 1675 at age 37 near Ludington. • Grave is now in St. Ignace. Father Jacques Marquette(aka Pere Marquette)“The Father of Michigan” Louis Jolliet

  34. Discovered the Mississippi River in 1673 and sailed down it hoping to find the Pacific Ocean. Came within 435 miles of the Gulf of Mexico. 1681 map of their voyage showed Lake Michigan called Lac de Michigamirather than Lac des Illinois Marquette and Jolliet

  35. Competed for fur trade in North America during the 1600 and 1700s. Charles II charted the Hudson’s Bay Company, which eventually dominated the fur trade. • English settled in East, farmed, and brought many settlers over from England • British traders were less generous in trade with Indians, and wanted their land. • French sparsely settled interior, and tried to control fur trade by establishing forts and trading posts • French allied with Algonquin Indians, British allied with Iroquois Indians (Senecas, Cayugas, Oneidas, Mohawks, Onandagas = Iroquois Confederacy) The English vs. the French Charles II (r. 1660-1685) Louis XIV (r. 1638-1715)

  36. Hunters and gatherers, not farmers Moved from place to place with food supply Cannot sell land, which is a public good Liked the white man’s goods, but not their greed for land and natural resources. Referred to English king as the “Great White Father” The Indians vs. the White Men

  37. French relied on the Huron Indians as middlemen to moves furs from the Great Lakes area to the St. Lawrence area. War with the Iroquois disrupted trade in the 1640s. The Chippewas aided the Hurons to defeat Iroquois, so peace was made in 1653, and the French fur trade was restored. War between the Hurons and Iroquois

  38. Control the fur trade to provide wealth to fight wars and build great cities. • Search for gold and silver as the Spanish were doing in the southwest. Found some copper in Upper Peninsula, but focused on fur trade • Race for a colonial empire and national glory relative to Spanish in the West, and British in the East. • Convert Indians to Christians via Jesuit missionaries like Father Marquette and Father Claude Allouez, the most active missionary, who discovered copper in the U.P. Reasons for French exploration –“God, Gold, and Glory”

  39. Made New France in St. Lawrence River area a royal colony in 1663 • Defeated the Iroquois in 1667, who were attacking Montreal and Quebec City • Minister of Finance Colbert opposed settlements in the interior; preferred Indians to bring furs to New France. • Governor of New France, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, ignored his orders and built settlements in the West, including Michigan Louis XIV No picture of Frontenac exists

  40. Robert Cavalier de la Salle Commissioned by Governor Frontenac, La Salle built the Griffin (Le Griffon), the first sailing vessel on the Great Lakes, in 1679 Griffin sailed from Niagara Falls to Green Bay, past Detroit in search of water route to China. He was lost on return trip. May have been lost in a storm, or boarded by Indians, who burned it. La Salle believed the crew sank it, and made off with the furs. There is no conclusive evidence, but it was the first shipwreck on the Great Lakes. Frontenac’s coat of arms had a griffin on it (half eagle, half lion) Chateau Frontenac in Quebec City

  41. - In 1679, La Salle founded Fort Miami near modern day St. Joseph in SW Michigan, the first French outpost in the Lower Peninsula. Destroyed a year later. La Salle and the Mississippi River - La Salle was the first white man to explore the interior of the Lower Peninsula. In 1680, he travelled on foot from Fort Miami in SW Michigan to the Detroit River in about 30 days. In total, he hiked 1,000 miles from Fort Miami to Fort Frontenac in eastern Lake Ontario in 60 days. - Reached the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1682, named it Louisiana after King Louis XIV. La Salle, and his benefactor, Frontenac, sought to reduce monopoly of Montreal merchants by shipping to France via New Orleans. - Assassinated by his own men in 1687

  42. First of four English-French conflicts in Europe that spilled over to the New World • English incited and armed the Iroquois to attack French forts. 200 French killed by Iroquois outside of Montreal in 1689. • War with England caused French to reverse policy and build many forts in New France. King Louis XIV reappointed Frontenac in 1689 as Governor of New France, after he was removed from power in 1682 for using brandy in the fur trade. • In 1690, French built Fort de Buade (Frontenac’s family name) in St. Ignace, which the traders calledMichilimackinac. It was abandoned in 1701. • In 1691, French built Fort St. Joseph near Niles • Treaty of Ryswick ended war in 1697. King William’s War 1688-1697,_Michigan)

  43. Frontenac sent Cadillac to command at Michilimackinac for three years (1694-1697), the most important fur trading, military, and missionary center in the West Cadillac favored giving alcohol to the Indians, but missionaries did not. Frontenac backed Cadillac, but the courts in France backed the Jesuits. In 1696, they ordered all forts abandoned except one. Frontenac ignored orders but died in 1698. Cadillac went to France in 1698, and got the financial backing ($300) of Count Pontchartrain, Louis XIV’s chief minister, to build a fort and settlement in Le Detroit, the waterway (“the strait”) between Lake Huron and Lake Erie Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac