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CHAPTER 20 SPECIFIC CATABOLIC PATHWAYS LIPIDS. ADIPOSE TISSUE. 90% of adipose tissue is triglycerides It supplies energy. Insulation. Provides minor physical protection Cholestrol storage. HYDROLYSIS. GLYCEROL. GLUCOSE. GLYCOLYSIS. PYRUVATE. b -Oxidation.

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slide1

CHAPTER 20

SPECIFIC CATABOLIC PATHWAYS

LIPIDS

adipose tissue
ADIPOSE TISSUE
  • 90% of adipose tissue is triglycerides
  • It supplies energy.
  • Insulation.
  • Provides minor physical protection
  • Cholestrol storage
glycerol
GLYCEROL

GLUCOSE

GLYCOLYSIS

PYRUVATE

b oxidation
b-Oxidation
  • -Oxidation: a series of five enzyme-catalyzed reactions that cleaves carbon atoms two at a time from the carboxyl end of a fatty acid.
    • Reaction 1: the fatty acid is activated by conversion to an acylCoA
oxidation
-OXIDATION

Blue box =  carbon

Red box = acetyl CoA

oxidation1
-OXIDATION
  • Activation by addition Coenzyme-A
  •  carbon oxidized from CH2 to C=O (ketone)
  • Molecule split into acetyl CoA and Fatty acid 2 carbons shorter
  • Another Coenzyme-A added to shortened Fatty acid
slide9
Each cycle produces 1 acetyl-CoA

18 carbon fatty acid would give 9 acetyl-CoA

Cycles required is # of carbons/2 – 1

18 carbon fatty acid would require 8 cycles

Amount of energy from Fatty Acid depends on length of carbon chain

18 carbon fatty acid would give 146 ATP

fatty acid biosynthesis
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
  • While degradation of fatty acids takes place in mitochondria, the majority of fatty acid synthesis takes place in the cytosol.
  • These two pathways have in common that they both involve acetyl CoA.
    • Acetyl CoA is the end product of each spiral of b-oxidation.
    • Fatty acids are synthesized two carbon atoms at a time.
    • The source of these two carbons is the acetyl group of acetyl CoA.
  • The key to fatty acid synthesis is a multienzyme complex called acyl carrier protein, ACP-SH.
fatty acid biosynthesis1
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
  • ACP has a side chain that carries the growing fatty acid
  • ACP rotates counterclockwise, and its side chain sweeps over the multienzyme system (empty spheres).