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##### Forces and Motion

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**Gravity**• Objects of different masses fall at the same rate. • Galileo work • Acceleration depends on force and mass**Change in velocity equation**• Δ v = g X time • The change in velocity ( Δ ) is the difference between the final velocity and the starting velocity.**Formulas for Velocity of falling objects**• t = Δv/g or • Δ V = g X t or • . g = Δv / t**3 effects of Air resistance on a falling object**• 1. Force of gravity= 9.8 m/s2 • 2. Force of air resistance= is the force pushing up on an apple • 3. Net force= Fg -Far**Falling objects**• Leaf or Acorn**Free Fall**• Facts about Free fall • A. No Air resistance • B. Only happens when you have gravity and no other force • C. Free fall can occur only when there is no air • D. Happens in space and in a vacuum • E. Orbiting objects are in free fall**Orbits**• Need a forward motion • Need a gravity force • Both are needed to keep an object in orbit**Centripetal force**• Is an unbalanced force that causes objects to move in a circular path • Usually this force is gravity**Projectile motion**• Is the curved path an object follows when it is thrown or propelled near the surface of the earth. • It has two components a horizontal and a vertical motion which are independent of each other**Projectile Motion examples**• 1. A frog leaping • 2. Water being sprayed by a sprinkler • 3. A swimmer diving into water • 4. Balls being juggled • 5. An arrow shot by an archer**Newton’s Laws of Motion**• First Law of Motion = An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.**Newton’s Laws of Motion**• Newton’s second law of motion- The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied.**Newton’s Laws of Motion**• Newton’s third law of motion= Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.**Friction**• An unbalanced force affects Newton’s first law of motion. This unbalanced force is friction. • Because of friction the motions of objects changes**Inertia**• Is the tendency of all objects to resist any change in motion. • Law of Inertia aka Newton’s first law of motion • Mass is a measure of Inertia**Newtons**• Newton = N • N = kg * m /s2**Formulas for 2nd Law**• F = m X a or • A = F/m or • M = F/a**3rd law**• Force pairs do not act on the same object • All forces act in pairs • The effect of a reaction can be difficult to see**Momentum**• Is a quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an object • Momentum is known as p**Formulas for P**• P = m X v or • . m = p/v or • . v = p/m**Law of conservation of Momentum**• States that any time objects collide the total amount of momentum stays the same • This law is true for any collision if no other forces act on the colliding objects. • This law applies whether the objects stick together of bounce off each other after they collide.