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Forces and Motion

Forces and Motion

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Forces and Motion

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  1. Forces and Motion

  2. Forces What is a Force? -A pushor pull on an object -UNITS: NEWTONS (N)

  3. What is a Newton? • 1 Newton will cause a 1 kg object to experience 1 m/s2 of acceleration.

  4. Force causes changes in ___________ VELOCITY! ACCELERATION! • Therefore, it causes __________________ • Because force deals with VELOCITY- it has magnitude and direction • Therefore force is a vector

  5. Force cont. A force can cause… • a resting object to move, or … • A moving object to accelerate • How? • By changing the object’s speed or direction.

  6. Types of Forces- • Applied – contact force in the direction the object is moving (Fa) • Tension- caused by a rope, cable, ect., directed away from the object (Ft) • Normal- caused by a surface (Fn) • Friction- opposes the motion of objects, must have contact (Ff) • Force of gravity- force at a distance, caused by attraction between two objects (Fg)

  7. Applied Force Examples

  8. Tension Force Examples

  9. Normal Force Examples

  10. Friction is a force:Friction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact There are two main types of friction: Static- between stationary objects (“static”= “stationary”) Ex- the force that is keeping this block from sliding downhill Kinetic- friction of movement NOTICE: three types (on chart): Sliding,Rolling,Fluid Complete the concept map for the 4 types of friction! Use your textbook (pages 332-334)

  11. FRICTION is defined as is defined as is defined as is defined as & an example is & an example is & an example is & an example is STATIC SLIDING ROLLING FLUID Thre friction between surfaces that are stationary force that exists when objects slide past each other force that exists when a round object rolls over a flat surface (usually less than sliding friction) force that exists when an object moves through a fluid (air, water) a book sitting on a table -hockey puck on ice -child going down a slide -a sled down hill -a roller blade on a sidewalk -bowling ball on bowling alley -a car driving down the road -swimmer swimming through pool

  12. How can we decrease friction? Watch this demo and see… Can you think of a situation in which you would want to increase friction?

  13. The force of Gravity:objects that have mass are attractedto one another • Gravity is an attractive force  pulls objects together • Earth’s gravity acts toward the center of the Earth.

  14. WEIGHT: equal to Force of GRAVITY (Fg) • Not the same as MASS!!! • DO NOT CONFUSE THE TWO “GRAVITIES!” • FORCE of Gravity= FORCE in NEWTONS • (an object’s mass x the acceleration due to gravity) • ACCELERATION due to Gravity= 9.8 m/s2

  15. Concept REWIND • So why don’t we get sucked into the center of the earth?

  16. NORMAL FORCE • That upward force that balances gravity when you are standing on a surface • Can you think of other forces that can oppose gravity?

  17. Tension and Friction • Tension force can also oppose gravity • Air resistance is a type of frictional force: • (also called “Drag”)

  18. AIR RESISTANCE: • acts in the direction oppositetothemotion & reduces acceleration.

  19. Forces can be COMBINED: Net Force: Fnet: the combination of all of the forces acting on the object • Use Free Body Diagrams to show the net force: • Remember the Units? • NEWTONS

  20. Free body diagrams: • Book on desk

  21. Free fall with air resistance:(no friction)

  22. Balanced Forces: • Fnet = 0 (the net force is zero) • and there is nochange in the object’s motion. • Can be at rest OR moving at a constant velocity Example: Tug of war, Pushing piano

  23. Unbalanced Forces • Fnet is NOTequaltozero • The object accelerates in the direction of the net force (can cause it to speed up OR slow down) • Fig 14, p.332

  24. Decide if the following objects have balanced or unbalanced net forces. • An airplane is flying at 150 km per hour for 30 minutes. • Balanced= no acceleration! • A book sitting on a table. • Balanced= no acceleration! • A man sprinting to the finish line, accelerating at 2 m/s each second. • Unbalanced= acceleration!

  25. A) Historical Development 1) Aristotle (384 BC- 322 BC): Incorrectly proposed that force is required to keep an object moving

  26. Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton(1643 – 1727): Defined mass and force; Introduced 3 Laws of Motion

  27. Newton’s 1st Law of Motion The motion of an object does not change if its net force is zero. • Basically -an object at rest will stay at rest unless a force acts on it • Example: Soccer ball will remain (atrest) on the grass unless a forceacts on it

  28. Sometimes called the “LawofInertia” a) Inertia: the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction. 1) Car crash: You continue forward because of inertia “Science and the Consumer” p.348

  29. How is inertia related to mass?P 347 • Mass is a measure of inertia. • Who would you rather be tackled by…a toddler or a defensive lineman? • What is easier to move? An empty garbage can or a garbage can full of lead? Why? • The empty garbage can has less mass= less inertia= less resistance to being accelerated.

  30. Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion “the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on it divided by the object’s mass.” Units: F= N M= g A= m/s2 = N/kg • See Math Skills p.350 Acceleration = Net Force a = FF=ma Mass m

  31. W=mg a=F/m Weight is a result of F=ma Mass: the amount of matter in an object Weight: measure of the gravitational force • Units for weight = N • Basically Newton’s 2nd Law W is Force g is Acceleration Weight = Mass x Acceleration due to gravity W = mg • g = 9.8 m/s2

  32. Rewind • Do you remember Inertia? How is this related to mass? • How is that different than weight?

  33. Your weight on Earth is affected by Earth’s gravity You would weigh less on the Moon b/c gravity on Moon is less You would weigh almost nothing in interstellar space Mass is a measure of the inertia of an object; weight is a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object.

  34. Newton’s Third Law of Motion & Momentum Newton’s Third Law “when one object exerts a force on a 2nd object, the 2nd object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.” Two forces are called action and reactionforces

  35. Equal & opposite Action and Reaction Forces: Example: Pushing your hand against a wall 1) Hand pressing on wall = ACTION 2) Wall exerting a force on hand = REACTION

  36. Action-Reaction forces do not cancel each other out Example: Swimming action-reaction forces do notact on the same object. • Action= pushing backward onthewater, • Reaction = water pushing forward ontheswimmer • causes the swimmer to move because that force is overcoming the friction ontheswimmer.

  37. Action-reaction forces can produce motion, but not all do- • it depends on what other forces are acting on the objects. Pushingawall = no motion (because the wall has other forces acting on it…gravity, etc) Swimming = motion (because force of water is greater than friction on the swimmer)

  38. Rewind • State in simple terms Newton’s Three Laws. (in a way you can remember which is which) • 1st Law of Inertia (An object at rest will stay at rest…) • 2nd- F=MA • 3rd Action-Reaction (explains conservation of momentum)

  39. Extension- do not teach in 2014

  40. Newton’s Laws explain Projectile Motion: • Projectile motion= the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of the Earth [Fig 13, p.358]

  41. What FORCES are affecting the acceleration? (A=F/M) • Force of the “throw”, • Air resistance and • gravity Water Balloon Toss- •

  42. How does this affect the acceleration? • The combination of an initialforwardvelocity and the downwardforce of gravity causes the ball to follow a curvedpath. • Animation:

  43. Another Law • Law of conservation of Momentum

  44. Momentum: the product of the mass & velocity of an object An object has a large momentum if the product of its mass and velocity is large. SI Units: kg x m/s Momentum=mass x velocityp=mv

  45. Law of Conservation of Momentum: • momentum cannot be created or destroyed, so the total momentum is conserved [Fig 20, p.364] • In a closed system, the loss of momentum of one object equals the gain in momentum of another object—momentum is conserved.

  46. Usually that’s not the whole story • There’s one more concept to explain the acceleration of an object

  47. Impulse Impulse is related to momentum and force Definition: Change in Momentum over time SI Units: N(s) Impulse=Force x Time I=Ft

  48. The fact that impulse depends on both force and time means that there is more than one way to apply a large impulse to an object