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The IAASTD Reports ( www.agassessment.org Key issues in relation to food and nutrition security. K. Hans R. Herren, Co-Chair IAASTD, President Millennium Institute hh@millennium-institute.org Brussels Rural Development Briefing on Food Security Dec 9, 2009. IAASTD: The Reports

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The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

The IAASTD Reports

(www.agassessment.org

Key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

K

Hans R. Herren, Co-Chair IAASTD,

President Millennium Institute

hh@millennium-institute.org

Brussels Rural Development Briefing on Food Security

Dec 9, 2009


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

IAASTD: The Reports

www.agassessment.org

Global / sub-Global Reports: 400 authors, 52 countries


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

IAASTD background: tasks

Stakeholder identified the IAASTD Development and Sustainability Goals (=MDG) that the assessment will have to address in respect of AKST’s past, present and future impact on:

• Reducing Hunger and Poverty

• Improving Rural Livelihoods

• Improving Nutrition and Human Health

• Facilitating Environmentally, Socially, Equitable and Economically Sustainable Development

…under the Challenges of:

• Climate Change

• Population and Demand Growth

• Shrinking Natural Resources / Energy


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Global context and recent trends

Unprecedented increase in ag productivity through R&D

2008


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

The basis of the Green Revolution

Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, irrigation and pesticide use are UNSUSTAINABLE

David Tilman et al. Science 2001


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

What’s the Problem with conventional agriculture?

1. People have benefited unevenly from the very significant yield increases across regions

• inequity, poverty

• health / nutrition

• uneven trade

2. this productivity increase has come atcosts:

• environmental sustainability

• soils

• water

• biodiversity

• climate change




Agriculture s challenge what is the right course to food and nutrition security
Agriculture’s challenge: what is the right course to food and nutrition security?

To meet the IAASTD (=MDG) sustainability and development goals and respond to the new priorities and changing needs means:

“a fundamental shift in AKST and the linked agri-food system policies, institutions, capacity development and investments”

…..an organic revolution…..

i.e., addressing the multifunctionality of agriculture and the needs of the small-scale and family farms with an emphasis on the social, environmental and economic aspects aspects


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Agriculture’s critical challenges: Multifunctionality and nutrition security?

Changing the R&D paradigm and focus


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Food Production and nutrition security?

Understand complexity of agriculture

Land Loss & Flooding

Food Production

Health Catastrophes

Energy Sector

Human Population

Migration

Fresh Water

Global Warming


A major challenge for food security the small scale family farmer
A major and nutrition security?challenge for food security:The small scale / family farmer

Pro-poor progress requires:

creating opportunities for innovation and entrepreneurship

Increased public research and extension investment

  • Small scale/family farm sustainability poses challenging policy choices:

    • payment for ecological services

    • decentralized governance systems and technology choices


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Small scale/family farmers: and nutrition security?

Produce the bulk of global food

Are the largest number of stewards for the environmental services and biodiversity

Higher and sustainable productivity increase at their level will have a major impact on all the development goals (organic/ecological)

A major opportunity for food security:The small scale / family farmer

• Critical need: suite of policy approaches that address small-scale / family producers, including AKST designed to improve profitability of the sector


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?Sustainability Goals

1. Poverty and livelihoods

• Access to land and economic resources

• Access to urban and export markets

• Empower farmers with innovative tools, skills and knowledge to manage soils, water, biological resources, pests, etc….

• Combine farmers’ with external knowledge (new partnerships)

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?Sustainability Goals

2. Food security

• AKST approaches for development of food stock management, market intelligences, early warning, distribution systems, ICT

• Local production (food sovereignty), access and adequate nutritional information / education

• AKST policies geared towards high value and underutilized crops, organic and fair trade, strengthening of local markets, food safety nets

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?Sustainability Goals

3. Environmental sustainability

• AKST to enhance sustainability while maintaining productivity (protecting the natural resource base and ecological provisioning)

• improving nutrient, energy, water and land use efficiency

• better understanding of crop – environment interactions (realize yield potential), farm diversification, promotion of agro-ecological and conservation agriculture (CA) systems

• Policies include ending perverse subsidies, payment for ecosystem services, promotion of IPM, organic agriculture, agro-ecology…..

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?Sustainability Goals

4. Human Health and nutrition

The IAASTD recognizes the inter-linkages between health, nutrition, agriculture and the ability to meet the sustainability goals

• AKSTs for an integrated approach

• increase food security and safety

• Additional investments to maintain / improve current systems

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?Sustainability Goals

5. Equity

• Reform of the governance of AKST and related organizations (research, extension), integration of traditional / local knowledge

• Equitable access to production resources (land / water)

• Reward for multifunctionality and ecosystem services

• Multistakeholder participation in decision making

• Preferential investments in literacy, education and training

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?AKST Themes

1. Bio-energy

• Suggest caution……and consideration for the local context

• Different forms of agro-fuels and uses

• Weigh the full social, economic and environmental costs

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?AKST Themes

3. Climate change

• Relationship is two ways: agriculture is part of the problem and now needs to be part of the solution

i.e., win-win solutions:

• lower rates of ag expansion into forests, natural habitats (preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services)

• carbon sequestration measures

• reduction of external production inputs, increase resilience (fertilizers, pesticides, use organic ag principles and CA)

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : AKST Themes and nutrition security?

4. Human Health

• Complex links between health, nutrition, agriculture and AKST not always recognized as policy issue

• Ill health in the farming community affects the production potential (treadmill). Solution lie in increased income, education, utilization of wider range of food crops

• Consumption patterns: Need to focus consumers on quality, diversity rather than price and quantity

• Provide incentives for health promoting foods

• Joint research projects with nutritionists

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?AKST Themes

5. Natural Resource Management

• NRs are the bases of food production

• Efficient management and utilization of NR to assure long term productivity of the agro-ecosystem

• More investment in research, training and education. Evaluate the value of the ecosystem services

• Develop new practitioners networks for long term NR management for the collective good

• Judicious use of the natural capital to ensure quality of life for future generations

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?AKST Themes

6. Trade and Markets

• Key elements in assuring food security and sovereignty

• needed to protect small scale / family farms

• Ag trade offers opportunities to the small scale farm sector, but only within a new economic order that removes resource –use and market distorting subsidies

• Environmental externalities need to be fully accounted for

• Ecosystem services and Carbon trade: new mechanisms to assist the small-scale farm sector

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action: Trade and nutrition security?

Opening national agricultural markets to international competition can offer economic benefits, but can lead to long term negative effects on poverty alleviation, food security and the environment without basic national institutions and infrastructure being in place

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?AKST Themes

7. Traditional and local knowledge and community based innovation

• Traditional / local knowledge key in agriculture and food systems

• importance of local knowledge in traditional foods

• maintenance of crop diversity builds on local knowledge and depends largely small-scale farmers

• traditional knowledge is dynamic and need to be integrated through participative working methods into modern AST

• issues with farmers rights to their knowledge and innovations

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action and nutrition security?

Biotechnology

• Issue of definition (conventional, modern)


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : and nutrition security?AKST Themes

8. Women in agriculture

Current trends in agricultural market liberalization and reorganization of farm work, sustainability and health concerns are redefining links between gender and development

• 20 to 70 % women in ag production and postharvest activities (export crops)

• women face deteriorating health and work conditions, limited access to education and control over production resources, low income

• AKST to be directed towards women’s need

• investments in value chain (processing), safe practices, remove drudgery

Business as usual is not an option


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action and nutrition security?

New Policies for food and nutrition security

Invest in long term gains versus short term quick fixes (i.e., deal with the cause not the symptoms by understanding the system)


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

You cannot solve the problem with the same kind of thinking that created the problem

Albert Einstein

Thank you


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action : that created the problemSustainability Goals

6. Investments

• More public investments in regional, national and local public goods; food security and safety; climate change and sustainability

• More public investments in agricultural knowledge systems/ knowledge networks; improved access to information (ICT); ecological, food, nutrition, social and complex systems’ science; life long learning along the food system.

• Public – private partnership to fund AKST

• Investment in rural infrastructure


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action that created the problem

Biotechnology

• So far little impact on IAASTD Development and Sustainability Goals

• Methodological limitations in efficacy and safety testing

• Problem oriented R&D to continue, but not at the expense of other agricultural research, education and training

• Patent issue (increased costs for farmers, restricted experimentation, research and seed exchange; undermining local practices that would assure food security and economic sustainability)

• Exposure of farmers to liabilities, etc.


The iaastd reports agassessment key issues in relation to food and nutrition security

Options for action: that created the problemconsumption patterns and sustainable development

Business as usual is not an option