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digestion & nutrition

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  1. digestion & nutrition Chapter 36

  2. outline • Nutrition introduction • Nutrition requirements • Nutritional disorders

  3. Nutrition • Required for homeostasis • Provides energy for cellular work • Provides materials body cannot manufacture- monomers, minerals, vitamins • Heat for body temperature maintenance • Repair & maintenance of tissues • Measured in calories • 1 gram 1c • Measures amount of energy in food source • Different food sources hold different energy values

  4. Metabolic rate • D= Rate of energy consumption • Basal metabolic rate (bmr) • Maintain just body function • Ave 1300-2000 kcal/day • Will vary amongst individuals based on a variety of factors • Age -size • Sex -stress • Exercise -sleep • Genetics

  5. Thin Craze • 95% women report disgust with body • Fashion models weigh 23% less than average woman • Thin represents • Attractiveness, control, sucess

  6. Thin Craze

  7. Thin Craze goes both ways..

  8. Nutritional disorders • Malnutrition • Obesity

  9. Malnutrition • D= deficiency in 1+ essential nutrients • Inadequate food intake or disease • Body breaks down to fuel metabolism • 800m worldwide • 75% of americans do not meet their RDA • Lack of education • Children greatest impacted group • Protein deficiency • Main source of complete food sources • expensive

  10. Being Skinny is NOT healthy

  11. Anorexia • Highest death rate of any psychological disorder • Low blood pressure, bone loss, kidney, liver, heart damage

  12. Obesity • D= Inappropriate high ratio of weight to height • Eating disorder of developed nations- over nourishment • ¼ of Americans • 1992-2006 obesity in Americans increased from 22.9 to 30.5% • Child obesity doubled since 80s • Health risks • Cardiovascular disease- Heart attack • Diabetes- type II • Cancer

  13. Arthrosclerosis

  14. Diabetes Type II • Most common form of diabetes • 90-95% of diabetes cases • Insulin deficiency or insulin resistance • Insulin important in glucose transport from blood to cells • Associated with • Obesity, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, heart disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome

  15. Food “Addiction” ? • Similar neural pathways as drugs • high-fat foods stimulate opioids or 'pleasure chemicals' in the brain. • Dopamine reward system • Dopamine released when food eaten • Rewards body for survival enhancing behaviors • Obese reduced number of dopamine receptors • Similar to drug addiction alters of brain chemistry • Lab rats • Diet 25% sugar • Withdrawal symptoms • Shakes, teeth chattering

  16. Chocolate Addiction? • Contain compounds that mimic psychoactive drugs • Contain cannabinoids • Result in Heightened sensitivity and euphoria

  17. Hormone imbalance • Leptin regulates food consumption • Inhibitory effect on eating • Monitors fat reserves • Rise in fat levels reduce response to leptin • Difficult for overweight person to lose weight (drop in leptin triggers starvation response)

  18. Industry/ Culture • Push for larger profit margins results in cheaper, but unhealthier products • Hydrogenated oils • High concentration fructose syrups

  19. Obesity Prevention • Well balanced diet • Exercise • Portion size

  20. Atkins Diet

  21. Atkins Diet

  22. Proper nutrition • Provides energy for cellular work • Provides materials body cannot manufacture- • Monomers • Minerals • vitamins

  23. Recommended daily allowances • Minimum standards for preventing nutrient deficiencies • Standards • Dietary supplements

  24. FDA • Food & Drug Administration • Food products, human & animal drugs, animal feed • Monitors manufacture, import, transport, storage & sale of approx $1Trillion worth of products • Define serving sizes, recommended daily allowances

  25. Old Food Pyramid Fat is bad, carbs are good

  26. Better but still not great

  27. Food Labels • Profile contents of food products • “Low fat” “Light” • Informed decisions • Cals = Kcals • Overall profile to make informed decisions not just about calorie content

  28. Make informed decisions……

  29. Essential Nutrients • D= Substances your body needs that it cannot manufacture • Essential amino acids • Vitamins • Minerals • Essential fatty acids

  30. Essential Amino Acids • ?? Amino acids? • 12 can be manufactured by the body • 8= essential amino acids attained from food sources • Animal foods are complete • Meat, eggs, milk • Vegetable foods are incomplete • Mixture- grains & legumes

  31. Essential Fatty Acid • D= Fats and lipids that the body cannot manufacture • Glycerol & fatty acids • Unsaturated fats • Linoleic acid • Phospholipid membrane • Fats from vegetable sources

  32. Many Fats • Saturated fats • Meat, dairy, eggs, coconut oil • Unsaturated fats (Hydrogenated fats & oils) • Monounsaturated fats • Olive & canola oil, nuts, avocado • Polyunsaturated fats • Sunflower, sesame, corn, soybean oils, nuts & seeds • Omega-3-fats • Fatty fish- salmon, trout, herring, mackeral • Trans fats

  33. Saturated fat diet

  34. Trans Fats • As bad if not worse than saturated fats • Health risks • Atherosclerosis • Inability of body to process • Increases bad cholesterol (LDL) • Lowers good cholesterol (HDL) • Found in…Vegetable shortening, Hard margarines, Cookies, crackers, fried foods, packaged snacks …..