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Food Systems in Health Session 2 Health Implications Food, Health, Nutrition Julie B. Hirsch, Ph.D. Director, Product Development, WellGen, Inc. Member Adjunct Faculty of Food Science, Rutgers June 29 2006 CONTENT Worth being familiar with Important to know Big Ideas &

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food systems in health

Food Systems in Health

Session 2

Health Implications

food health nutrition

Food, Health, Nutrition

Julie B. Hirsch, Ph.D.

Director, Product Development, WellGen, Inc.

Member Adjunct Faculty of Food Science, Rutgers

June 29 2006

slide3
CONTENT

Worth being familiar with

Important to know

Big Ideas &

Enduring Understandings

3 key concepts i e big ideas
3 Key Concepts (i.e. BIG ideas)
  • FOOD

Food is a very complex system made up of lots of many individual components

  • HEALTH

Functional foods are the healthy foods

  • NUTRITION

There are no bad foods, just bad diets

(includes poor diet choices and maybe bad parenting)

slide6
FOOD

Any substance that is eaten or otherwise taken into the body to sustain physiological life, provide energy and promote nutrition

the stuff that sits

on your plate

what is the make up of food
What is the make-up of Food?
  • Array of chemicals including
    • Water
    • Nutrients
    • Colors
    • Flavors
    • Other known and unknown compounds
    • Textures
six classes of nutrients
Six Classes of Nutrients
  • Carbohydrate
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water
provide energy
Carbohydrate

Protein

Fat

Vitamins

Minerals

Water

YES

YES

YES

NO

NO

NO

Provide Energy?
vitamins are
Vitamins are
  • a group of organic compounds
  • do NOT supply calories
  • a disparate group of compounds
    • they have little in common either chemically or in their metabolic function
  • water soluble or fat soluble
the power of vitamins
The Power of Vitamins

elimination from the diet must result in a more-or-less clearly defined deficiency disease, and restoration must cure or prevent that deficiency disease

Vitamins are ESSENTIAL

water soluble vitamin functions
Water Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin C

B Vitamins

Thiamin (B1)

Riboflavin (B2)

Niacin

Vitamin B6

Folic Acid

Vitamin B12

Pantothenic Acid

Biotin

Water Soluble Vitamin Functions

Skin, bones,

infections

Release energy from

MACROnutrients:

fat soluble vitamin functions
Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Fat Soluble Vitamin Functions
vitamins and solubility
Water Soluble

Vitamin C

B Vitamins

Thiamin

Riboflavin

Niacin

Pantothenic Acid

Biotin

Vitamin B6

Folic Acid

Vitamin B12

Fat Soluble

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Vitamins and Solubility
composition examples16
Composition Examples

Salmon

Little Carbohydrate

Some Fat

LOTS Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Chocolate

LOTS Carbohydrate

Good Amount Fat

Some Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Tea

No macronutrients

NO micronutrients

LOTS of Antioxidants

what is the make up of food17
What is the make-up of Food?
  • Array of chemicals including
    • Water
    • Nutrients
    • Colors
    • Flavors
    • Other known and unknown compounds
    • Textures
health20
HEALTH

A continued state of soundness and vigor of body and mind

It is reflected in low infant mortality, longevity, low morbidity to infectious and chronic disease (i.e. increased resistance).

feeling good inside and out

functional food
Functional Food

1. Foods or dietary components that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition1

2. General term for foods that provide an additional physiological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs2

Inherently Functional

● Fresh produce

• Fresh fruit

• Fresh vegetables

● Skim milk

● Orange Juice

Imposed Functional

● Fortified & Enhanced foods

• Breads

• Energy bars

• Margarines

1http://www.ific.org/nutrition/functional/index.cfm

2Boyle and Anderson, Personal Nutrition, 5th ed. p.194

composition examples22
Composition Examples

Salmon

Little Carbohydrate

Some Fat

LOTS Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Chocolate

LOTS Carbohydrate

Good Amount Fat

Some Protein

LOTS of Antioxidants

Tea

No macronutrients

NO micronutrients

LOTS of Antioxidants

what is the make up of food23
What is the make-up of Food?
  • Array of chemicals including
    • Water
    • Nutrients
    • Colors
    • Flavors
    • Other known and unknown compounds
    • Textures
nutraceuticals
Nutraceuticals

Naturally-derived, bioactive compounds that have health promoting, disease preventing or medicinal properties

  • May be delivered in the form of
    • Food (Functional Food)
    • Dietary Supplement
      • or in both forms
origin of healthy
“Functional” Foods Origin of ‘healthy’

INTACT Plants and Foods

Bioactives

‘Functional Components’

Nutraceuticals

Dietary Supplements

Botanicals

Nutrients and Non-Nutrients

Fortified with

Nutraceuticals

Whole Foods

antioxidants
Antioxidants
  • chemicals that prevent the oxidation of other compounds

Think RUST…

antioxidants prevent it in your body

Other terms:

Non-nutrients

Phytochemicals

Nutraceuticals

Bioactives

chocolate and health
Chocolate and Health

Biological Effects

  • Anti-angiogenic
  • Anti-thrombotic
  • Vasodilatory
  • Anti-carcinogenic
  • Anti-inflammatory

Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003

salmon and health
Salmon and Health

Heart

Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003

tea and health
Tea and Health

Biological Effects

  • Anti-angiogenic
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anti-carcinogenic
  • Anti-diabetic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-thrombotic
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Anti-viral
  • Hypocholesterolemic
  • Hypoglycemic
  • Vasodilatory

Mechanism of Action?

Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003

tea composition is complex
Tea Composition is Complex

FLAVONOIDS

  • Flavan-3-ols

CatechinsTheaflavins

    • Epigallocatechin (EGC)  Theaflavin (TF1)
    • Catechin (C)  Theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2a)
    • Epicatechin (EC)  Theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2b)
    • Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3)
    • Gallocatechin gallate (GCG)
    • Epicatechin gallate (ECG)
    • Catechin gallate (CG)

FLAVONOLS

  • Kaempferol
  • Myricetin
  • Quercetin

Bhagwat et. al. 2003.

http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/Other/IFT2003_TeaFlav.pdf

nutrigenomics
NUTRIGENOMICS

addresses the role of diet in gene expression

slide33

FAT

MACRONUTRIENTS, an Example

good fats bad fats think blood and brain
BAD

raise LDL

lower HDL "good“ cholesterol

Saturated

Sources: Meat, dairy, eggs and seafood (Animal); coconut, palm oil (Plant)

Trans

Sources: Fried foods, processed foods with hydrogenated oils

☺GOOD

lower total cholesterol

lower LDL “bad” cholesterol

Monounsaturated

Sources: Nuts, canola, olive oil

Polyunsaturated

Sources: Seafood (Animal), Corn, soy, safflower, sunflower (Plant)

Omega 3’s = polyunsaturates

Good Fats/Bad FatsThink Blood and Brain
health benefits from lipids
Health Benefits from Lipids
  • Cardiovascular health
  • Infant nutrition memory enhancement
  • Body weight management
  • Natural defense
omega 3 fatty acid claims
Omega-3 Fatty Acid claims
  • Examples of some structure/function claims:
    • Omega-3’s support cardiovascular health
    • Omega-3’s support healthy brain function
    • Omega-3’s support healthy brain and eye development
    • Omega-3’s support a healthy immune system
    • Omega-3’s are beneficial for health maintenance

In using a structure/function claim the manufacturer is responsible for ensuring the accuracy and truthfulness of the claims; the FDA does not pre-approve the claims, however, they must be truthful and not misleading

trans fats
Trans Fats
  • Associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease
    • metabolic studies: a 1994 estimated 30,000 premature CHD deaths annually could be attributable to consumption of trans fatty acids
  • Because of the weight of the evidence, the FDA now requires including trans fatty acid content on the food label

Willett WC, Ascherio A. Trans fatty acids: Are the effects only marginal? Am J Public Health 1994; 84:722-724.

nutrition41
NUTRITION

The sum of biochemical and physiological processes concerned with the growth, maintenance, and repair of the living body as a whole, or of its constituent organs

Graham Lusk, The Science of Nutrition, 1928

what happens to food once it passes your lips

functions of food
Functions of Food
  • Provide energy (satisfy hunger)
  • Provide nutrients (satisfy nutrition)
  • Detect, treat, prevent illness manifestations
  • Initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships
  • Determine extent of interpersonal distance
  • Express socio-religious beliefs
  • Express social status prestige
  • Recognize special achievement
  • Cope with psychological stress
  • Reward/punish influence others behaviors
  • Detect, treat, prevent cultural behavior deviations

PHYSIO

LOGICAL

EMOTION

PSYCHO

LOGICAL

origins of nutrition basic 4
Origins of Nutrition: Basic 4
  • Meat
  • Dairy
  • Vegetables
  • Grains
diet food nutrition health
Diet – Food, Nutrition, Health
  • Diet is related to five of the leading causes of death
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer
    • Stroke
    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension
  • Early nutrition science efforts concentrated on eliminating deficiency diseases
    • eliminated today in 1st world (like USA) given abundant food supply and practice of fortifying food with essential nutrients
  • Today, overnutrition, poor dietary habits, and environmental/lifestyle factors,contribute to development of degenerative and chronic diseases
dietary reference intakes dris
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
  • Reference values
    • quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes
    • used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people
  • Refer to average daily nutrient intake of individuals over time
labeling requirements
Labeling Requirements
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
    • vitamin A
      • % vitamin A as beta-carotene
    • vitamin C
    • calcium
    • iron

RDI = Reference Daily Intake: reference value for vitamins, minerals and protein

nutrition facts requirement
Nutrition Facts - requirement

1

Calories

Calories

Fat

2

Macronutrients

Cholesterol

3

Micronutrients

Sodium

Others

Cholesterol

Sodium

4

Carbohydrate

Protein

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

Calcium

Iron

more nutrition facts
More Nutrition Facts

Can add more nutrients to the Nutrition Facts panel if you fortify

Can highlight ‘healthfulness’ by including unsaturated fats

more facts
More Facts

Gotta have the label even if there’s not much to say!

labeling requirements55
Labeling Requirements
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
    • vitamin A
      • % vitamin A as beta-carotene
    • vitamin C
    • calcium
    • iron

If there is no RDI…

technically a non-nutrient,

do not need to label

RDI = Reference Daily Intake: reference value for vitamins, minerals and protein

nutrients vs non nutrients
Nutrients (RDIs)

vitamin A

vitamin C

thiamin

riboflavin

niacin

calcium

iron

vitamin D

vitamin E

vitamin B6

folic acid

vitamin B12

phosphorus

iodine

magnesium

Non-Nutrient (NO RDIs)

natural, bioactive chemical compounds that have health promoting, disease preventing or medicinal properties

Examples, include any

Nutraceuticals

Phytochemicals

Bioactives

Antioxidants

Botanicals

Nutrients vs. Non-Nutrients
types of claims allowed
Types of Claims allowed

LEAST

Scientific

Evidence

  • Health Claims
  • Qualified Health Claims
  • Structure/Function Claims

MOST

Scientific

Evidence

it s all about calorie balance

It’s All About Calorie Balance

If you eat more calories than your body uses, they will be stored as fat

it s all about calorie balance61
It’s All About Calorie Balance
  • One pound of body fat is equal to 3,500 Kcal
    • In theory, losing one pound requires a deficit of 3,500 calories

Eating 500 fewer calories per day - or expending 500 more calories - would result in losing one pound per week

calories and energy balance not higher order math
Calories and Energy Balance – NOT Higher order math

Calories IN = Calories OUT Maintain Weight

Calories IN > Calories OUT GAIN Weight

Calories IN < Calories OUT LOSE Weight

To maintain a desirable weight, energy intakes should not exceed energy needs

want to lose weight
Want to Lose Weight?
  • Calories
  • Fat
  • Carbs?
obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1985
No Data <10% 10%–14%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1985

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1986
No Data <10% 10%–14%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1986

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1987
No Data <10% 10%–14%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1987

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1988
No Data <10% 10%–14%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1988

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1989
No Data <10% 10%–14%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1989

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1990
No Data <10% 10%–14%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1991
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1992
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1992

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1993
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1993

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1994
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1994

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1995
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1995

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1996
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1996

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1997
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1997

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1998
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1998

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1999
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1999

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2000
No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2001
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2001

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

slide85
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2002

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

(*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2003
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2003

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2004
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2004

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

slide88
1991

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1991, 1996, 2004

(*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person)

1996

2004

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

who do we blame
Who do we BLAME?

FOOD

LIFESTYLE

TRANSPORTATION

COMMUNITIES

3 key concepts i e big ideas91
3 Key Concepts (i.e. BIG ideas)
  • FOOD

Food is a very complex system made up of lots of many individual components

  • HEALTH

Functional foods are the healthy foods

  • NUTRITION

There are no bad foods, just bad diets

(includes poor diet choices and maybe bad parenting)

food science resources
Food Science Resources

http://members.ift.org/IFT/Education/TeacherResources/

thank you

Thank You

Julie B. Hirsch, Ph.D.

WellGen, Inc.

[email protected]

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