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Food Systems in Health

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  1. Food Systems in Health Session 2 Health Implications

  2. Food, Health, Nutrition Julie B. Hirsch, Ph.D. Director, Product Development, WellGen, Inc. Member Adjunct Faculty of Food Science, Rutgers June 29 2006

  3. CONTENT Worth being familiar with Important to know Big Ideas & Enduring Understandings

  4. 3 Key Concepts (i.e. BIG ideas) • FOOD Food is a very complex system made up of lots of many individual components • HEALTH Functional foods are the healthy foods • NUTRITION There are no bad foods, just bad diets (includes poor diet choices and maybe bad parenting)

  5. FOOD is a very complex system made up of lots of many individual components

  6. FOOD Any substance that is eaten or otherwise taken into the body to sustain physiological life, provide energy and promote nutrition the stuff that sits on your plate

  7. What is the make-up of Food? • Array of chemicals including • Water • Nutrients • Colors • Flavors • Other known and unknown compounds • Textures

  8. Six Classes of Nutrients • Carbohydrate • Protein • Fat • Vitamins • Minerals • Water

  9. Carbohydrate Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Water YES YES YES NO NO NO Provide Energy?

  10. Vitamins are • a group of organic compounds • do NOT supply calories • a disparate group of compounds • they have little in common either chemically or in their metabolic function • water soluble or fat soluble

  11. The Power of Vitamins elimination from the diet must result in a more-or-less clearly defined deficiency disease, and restoration must cure or prevent that deficiency disease Vitamins are ESSENTIAL

  12. Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin C B Vitamins Thiamin (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin Vitamin B6 Folic Acid Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Water Soluble Vitamin Functions Skin, bones, infections Release energy from MACROnutrients:

  13. Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Fat Soluble Vitamin Functions

  14. Water Soluble Vitamin C B Vitamins Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Pantothenic Acid Biotin Vitamin B6 Folic Acid Vitamin B12 Fat Soluble Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamins and Solubility

  15. Composition Examples

  16. Composition Examples Salmon Little Carbohydrate Some Fat LOTS Protein LOTS of Antioxidants Chocolate LOTS Carbohydrate Good Amount Fat Some Protein LOTS of Antioxidants Tea No macronutrients NO micronutrients LOTS of Antioxidants

  17. What is the make-up of Food? • Array of chemicals including • Water • Nutrients • Colors • Flavors • Other known and unknown compounds • Textures

  18. HEALTH

  19. Functional Foods are Healthy Foods

  20. HEALTH A continued state of soundness and vigor of body and mind It is reflected in low infant mortality, longevity, low morbidity to infectious and chronic disease (i.e. increased resistance). feeling good inside and out

  21. Functional Food 1. Foods or dietary components that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition1 2. General term for foods that provide an additional physiological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs2 Inherently Functional ● Fresh produce • Fresh fruit • Fresh vegetables ● Skim milk ● Orange Juice Imposed Functional ● Fortified & Enhanced foods • Breads • Energy bars • Margarines 1http://www.ific.org/nutrition/functional/index.cfm 2Boyle and Anderson, Personal Nutrition, 5th ed. p.194

  22. Composition Examples Salmon Little Carbohydrate Some Fat LOTS Protein LOTS of Antioxidants Chocolate LOTS Carbohydrate Good Amount Fat Some Protein LOTS of Antioxidants Tea No macronutrients NO micronutrients LOTS of Antioxidants

  23. What is the make-up of Food? • Array of chemicals including • Water • Nutrients • Colors • Flavors • Other known and unknown compounds • Textures

  24. Nutraceuticals Naturally-derived, bioactive compounds that have health promoting, disease preventing or medicinal properties • May be delivered in the form of • Food (Functional Food) • Dietary Supplement • or in both forms

  25. “Functional” Foods Origin of ‘healthy’ INTACT Plants and Foods Bioactives ‘Functional Components’ Nutraceuticals Dietary Supplements Botanicals Nutrients and Non-Nutrients Fortified with Nutraceuticals Whole Foods

  26. Antioxidants • chemicals that prevent the oxidation of other compounds Think RUST… antioxidants prevent it in your body Other terms: Non-nutrients Phytochemicals Nutraceuticals Bioactives

  27. Phytonutrients

  28. Chocolate and Health Biological Effects • Anti-angiogenic • Anti-thrombotic • Vasodilatory • Anti-carcinogenic • Anti-inflammatory Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003

  29. Salmon and Health Heart Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003

  30. Tea and Health Biological Effects • Anti-angiogenic • Anti-bacterial • Anti-carcinogenic • Anti-diabetic • Anti-inflammatory • Anti-thrombotic • Anti-oxidant • Anti-viral • Hypocholesterolemic • Hypoglycemic • Vasodilatory Mechanism of Action? Blumberg, J. Nutr. 133: 3244S-3246S, 2003

  31. Tea Composition is Complex FLAVONOIDS • Flavan-3-ols CatechinsTheaflavins • Epigallocatechin (EGC)  Theaflavin (TF1) • Catechin (C)  Theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2a) • Epicatechin (EC)  Theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2b) • Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)  Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3) • Gallocatechin gallate (GCG) • Epicatechin gallate (ECG) • Catechin gallate (CG) FLAVONOLS • Kaempferol • Myricetin • Quercetin Bhagwat et. al. 2003. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/Other/IFT2003_TeaFlav.pdf

  32. NUTRIGENOMICS addresses the role of diet in gene expression

  33. FAT MACRONUTRIENTS, an Example

  34. BAD raise LDL lower HDL "good“ cholesterol Saturated Sources: Meat, dairy, eggs and seafood (Animal); coconut, palm oil (Plant) Trans Sources: Fried foods, processed foods with hydrogenated oils ☺GOOD lower total cholesterol lower LDL “bad” cholesterol Monounsaturated Sources: Nuts, canola, olive oil Polyunsaturated Sources: Seafood (Animal), Corn, soy, safflower, sunflower (Plant) Omega 3’s = polyunsaturates Good Fats/Bad FatsThink Blood and Brain

  35. Health Benefits from Lipids • Cardiovascular health • Infant nutrition memory enhancement • Body weight management • Natural defense

  36. Omega-3 Fatty Acid claims • Examples of some structure/function claims: • Omega-3’s support cardiovascular health • Omega-3’s support healthy brain function • Omega-3’s support healthy brain and eye development • Omega-3’s support a healthy immune system • Omega-3’s are beneficial for health maintenance In using a structure/function claim the manufacturer is responsible for ensuring the accuracy and truthfulness of the claims; the FDA does not pre-approve the claims, however, they must be truthful and not misleading

  37. Omega 3 Products

  38. Trans Fats • Associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease • metabolic studies: a 1994 estimated 30,000 premature CHD deaths annually could be attributable to consumption of trans fatty acids • Because of the weight of the evidence, the FDA now requires including trans fatty acid content on the food label Willett WC, Ascherio A. Trans fatty acids: Are the effects only marginal? Am J Public Health 1994; 84:722-724.

  39. NUTRITION

  40. There are no bad foods, just bad diets

  41. NUTRITION The sum of biochemical and physiological processes concerned with the growth, maintenance, and repair of the living body as a whole, or of its constituent organs Graham Lusk, The Science of Nutrition, 1928 what happens to food once it passes your lips

  42. Functions of Food • Provide energy (satisfy hunger) • Provide nutrients (satisfy nutrition) • Detect, treat, prevent illness manifestations • Initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships • Determine extent of interpersonal distance • Express socio-religious beliefs • Express social status prestige • Recognize special achievement • Cope with psychological stress • Reward/punish influence others behaviors • Detect, treat, prevent cultural behavior deviations PHYSIO LOGICAL EMOTION PSYCHO LOGICAL

  43. Origins of Nutrition: Basic 4 • Meat • Dairy • Vegetables • Grains

  44. Basic 4 is OLD History 70s 60s

  45. 1992 Food Guide Pyramid

  46. 2005 MyPyramid

  47. Diet – Food, Nutrition, Health • Diet is related to five of the leading causes of death • Heart disease • Cancer • Stroke • Diabetes • Hypertension • Early nutrition science efforts concentrated on eliminating deficiency diseases • eliminated today in 1st world (like USA) given abundant food supply and practice of fortifying food with essential nutrients • Today, overnutrition, poor dietary habits, and environmental/lifestyle factors,contribute to development of degenerative and chronic diseases

  48. HOW DO YOU MAKE THE RIGHT FOOD CHOICES?

  49. Nutrition Labels

  50. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) • Reference values • quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes • used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people • Refer to average daily nutrient intake of individuals over time