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Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Mark D’Agostino Overview Introduction / Terminology Examples of Agencies SPOT & Fresh Kitty RoboCup Applications of AI and Robotics More Examples The Humanoid COG Film Clip Terminology

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Mark d agostino l.jpg

Artificial Intelligence

& Robotics

Mark D’Agostino


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Introduction / Terminology

  • Examples of Agencies

    • SPOT & Fresh Kitty

    • RoboCup

  • Applications of AI and Robotics

  • More Examples

  • The Humanoid COG

  • Film Clip


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Terminology

  • Artificial Intelligence – The collective attributes of a computer, robot, or other device capable of performing functions such as learning, decision making, or other intelligent human behaviors.

  • Autonomous Agent – A hardware (or software) based system that has the following properties:

    autonomy - able to operate without the direct intervention of humans or others

    social ability - able to interact with other agents and possibly humans

    reactivity - able to perceive their environment and respond to changes that occur in it

  • Agency – A particular system composed of intelligent agents, such as computers or robots, that cooperate in order to solve a problem.

  • Behavior Engineering – A methodology used to develop behavior- based autonomous agents.



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Fresh Kitty

  • Modular, inexpensive, autonomous mobile robot

  • 4 wheel toy car design

  • Max. speed of 1 foot/sec

  • On-board microcomputer supervises and supports the exchange of information

  • Rotating turret holds 4 sonars

  • Turret also holds an infrared sensor to detect infrared rays

  • 32 light sensors detect objects in front of the robot

  • Bumpers all around the robot used to follow walls

  • Radio modem to communicate with remote agents


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SPOT

  • Autonomous mobile robot

  • 2 independent wheel design

  • Max. speed of 1 foot/sec

  • On-board microcontroller supervises and supports the exchange of information

  • Turret that holds infrared emitters that can be detected at a distance of up to 20 feet

  • Bumpers all around the robot used to follow walls

  • Radio modem to communicate with remote agents


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How do SPOT and Fresh Kitty work together?

  • SPOT also holds a small brush on its back

  • SPOT finds a wall and uses its bumper system and sensors to follow edges and collect dust with its brush

  • Through radio frequency and infrared communication SPOT can bring the dust back to Fresh Kitty who has a vacuum cleaner waiting to suck it up


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RoboCup

RoboCup is an international research effort to promote autonomous robots.

  • Robots must cooperate in…

    • Strategy acquisition

    • Real-time reasoning

    • Multi-agent collaboration

    • Competition against another team of robots


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RoboCup

  • Each robot has…

    • Pentium 233MHz

    • Linux OS

    • Video camera and frame grabber

    • Sensor System

    • Kicker


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How to the robots make decisions?

  • Control is based on a set of behaviors

  • Each behavior has a set of preconditions that either…

    • Must be satisfied

    • Are desired

  • A behavior is selected when all of the “musts” become true

  • A behavior is selected from several behaviors based on how many desired conditions are true


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Applications of AI and Robotics

  • Industrial Automation

  • Services for the Disabled

  • Vision Systems

  • Planetary Exploration

  • Mine Site Clearing

  • Law Enforcement

  • And Many Others…


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More Examples

Autonomouse

The Ants

TJ



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The Humanoid COG

  • MIT’s finest

  • Broken down COG is just a bunch of sensors and actuators

  • Except for legs and a flexible spine, COG has all the major degrees of freedom of the human upper body

  • Sight exists through video cameras

  • Hearing, touch, hand motion, and speech are being added soon


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Why build a human-like robot?

Brought to you by Rodney Brooks

  • Our bodies are critical to the representations that we use for internal thought and language

  • If a robot is looks like a human then it will be natural for humans to interact with it in a human-like way

  • To develop similar task constraints