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Working with Local Communities Harold Goodwin Purpose of Participation legitimation (Skeffington 1969) a palliative: co-option choice from pre-determined options devolution of power, power sharing empowerment (transformative?)

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purpose of participation
Purpose of Participation
  • legitimation (Skeffington 1969)
  • a palliative: co-option
  • choice from pre-determined options
  • devolution of power, power sharing
  • empowerment (transformative?)
    • enabling people to determine choices in life and to influence the direction of change.

Harold Goodwin

typology of participation
Typology of Participation


Harold Goodwin

who is participating
Who is participating?
  • Communities are heterogeneous.
  • The community never thinks …
  • Individuals think
  • Different members of the same group may have different views
  • Men and women, old and young ……….

Harold Goodwin

who are you exploiting
Who are you exploiting?
  • What are you getting out of it?
  • What is the individual you are talking to getting out of it?
  • What are you putting back?
  • Who is gaining from that?
  • How many of the people in the room are being paid to be there?
  • What are their opportunity costs?

Harold Goodwin

where do you stand
Where do you stand?

Researcher’s Agenda

Host communities

Host institution’s agenda

Harold Goodwin

methods for working with communities
Methods for Working with Communities
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal
  • Livelihood Analysis

Harold Goodwin

1 stakeholder analysis
1 Stakeholder Analysis
  • All parties (or stakeholders) with an interest in the outcome of a decision should be considered
  • Stakeholder theory is normative – it redefines an organisation as a group of
  • “stakeholder interests’ coordinating and optimizing entity” (Freeman)

Harold Goodwin

freeman strategic management 1984
An organization is characterised by its relationships with various groups and individuals





Local Communities

A “stakeholder in an organisation is (by definition) any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives”

The power to affect the firm’s performance and/or

A stake in firm’s performance

Freeman Strategic Management 1984

Harold Goodwin

key principles www stakeholderforum org




Good governance





Participation and engagement

Partnership/Cooperative Management

Societal gains


Voices, not votes

Key Principles

Harold Goodwin

  • Balancing interests
  • Wide range of groups whose primary focus may not be the issue under consideration
  • Intrinsic value is not the same as equal value (issues of worth and substance)
  • Consultation and negotiation

Harold Goodwin

stakeholders donaldson preston 1995
Stakeholders Donaldson & Preston 1995

“Stakeholders are persons or groups with legitimate interests in procedural and/or substantive aspects of corporate activity. Stakeholders are identified by their interests in the corporation.. The interests of all stakeholders are of intrinsic value. That is, each group of stakeholders merits consideration for its own sake….

Harold Goodwin

all equal
All equal?
  • Consideration should be given to each stakeholder group – regardless of the relative power of each group.
  • Normative, descriptive and instrumental
  • “To be an effective strategist you must deal with those groups that can affect you, while to be responsive (and effective in the long run) you must deal with those groups that you can affect.” Freeman 1984:46

Harold Goodwin


Failure to retain participation by a primary stakeholder group is an indicator of failure

  • Identify stakeholders and perceived stakes
  • Implement a process to manage relationships with the stakeholders

Harold Goodwin

  • “management of a set of transactions or bargains among the organization and its stakeholders” (Freeman)
  • Balance interests
  • Recognise that for a wide range of groups your organisation will not be central.
  • Intrinsic value is not the same as equal value
  • Be aware of the difference between consultation and negotiation

Harold Goodwin

stakeholder participation
Stakeholder Participation

902 results found,top 500 sorted by relevance


Harold Goodwin

http www earthsummit2002 org toolkits women download htm

Toolkit Booklet (in PDF format): 

The Stakeholder Toolkit. A Resource for Women and NGOs.Edited by Minu Hemmati & Kerstin Seliger. March 2001Part I Introduction (1.1 MB)Part II The United Nations (313 KB)Part III NGOs & Women’s Organisations (327 KB)Part IV International Agreements on Women’s/Gender Issues (109 KB)Part V NetworkingAnnexes (81 KB

Harold Goodwin

  • Sautter Managing Stakeholders Annals 1999.

Harold Goodwin

2 participatory rural appraisal
2 Participatory Rural Appraisal
  • A growing family of methods and approaches to enable local people to express, enhance, share and analyse their knowledge of life and conditions and to act.
  • Engage local people in planning, developing, managing and monitoring and appraising projects.
  • Participation of all people in learning about their needs and opportunities and in the action required to achieve the shared ….

Harold Goodwin

participatory learning and action
Participatory Learning and Action
  • Rapid Rural Appraisal RRA
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal PRA
  • Participatory Learning Methods PALM
  • Participatory Action Research PAR
  • Farming Systems Research FSR
  • Method Active de Recherche et de Planification Participative MARP

Harold Goodwin

too good to be true iied
Too good to be true? IIED
  • “increasing accountability”
  • “Enhancing participation and advocacy efforts”
  • “Improving local and external awareness of key issues”
  • “increasing local level capacity”
  • “sustaining partnerships between different stakeholders”.

Harold Goodwin

http www iied org sarl pla notes whatispla html

What is PLA?

  • Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) is an umbrella term for a wide range of similar approaches and methodologies, including Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Learning Methods (PALM), Participatory Action Research (PAR), Farming Systems Research (FSR), Méthod Active de Recherche et de Planification Participative (MARP), and many others. The common theme to all these approaches is the full participation of people in the processes of learning about their needs and opportunities, and in the action required to address them.

Harold Goodwin

what is pla iied website
“Creative approach to investigating issues of concern to poor people, and to planning, implementing, and evaluating development activities”



Group work

Interactive learning

Shared knowledge

Structured analysis

Offer opportunities for mobilising local people for joint action

What is PLA? IIED website

Harold Goodwin

  • Learning rapidly and progressively
  • Reversal of learning (androgogic)
  • Optimising & sharing knowledge
  • Off setting biases – seeking diversity
  • Triangulating
  • Facilitators play a key role - requires self critical awareness

Harold Goodwin

foundations of pra
Foundations of PRA
  • Increasing awareness of the failure of conventional approaches to meet the needs of poor people.
  • Emphasis on information sharing the production of knowledge and development of strategies
  • Behaviour and attitudes
  • Methods
  • Sharing
  • From extracting to empowering

Harold Goodwin

from rra to pra
From RRA to PRA

Harold Goodwin

highly skilled facilitation
Highly skilled facilitation
  • Be clear and open about your objectives
  • Embrace and admit error
  • Be self critical and listen to criticism
  • Hand over the pen from “us” to “them”
  • Relax and enjoy it

Harold Goodwin

teamwork methods
Teamwork methods
  • Team contracts & reviews
  • Peer assessments
  • Interview guides and checklists
  • Work sharing in local activities
  • Local presentations
  • Process notes and personal diaries

Harold Goodwin

sampling methods
Sampling methods
  • Transect walks
  • Wealth ranking, well being analysis
  • Social maps
  • Interview chains

Harold Goodwin

discussing and interviewing methods
Discussing and interviewing methods
  • Semi-structured interviewing
  • Focus groups
  • Key informants
  • Ethno histories and biographies
  • Case studies & story telling
  • Direct observation
  • Livelihood analysis

Harold Goodwin

visualisation methods
Participatory map

Social map and wealth ranking

Seasonal calendar

Daily routine

Time lines

Matrix scoring

Venn diagrams

Preference and pair ranking

Mobility maps

Network diagrams

Impact diagrams

Pie diagrams

Flow diagrams

Visualisation methods

Harold Goodwin

characterising pra
Characterising PRA
  • Field based visualisation, interviewing, group work – characterised by
  • Interactive learning
  • Shared knowledge – integrated vision
  • Flexible structured analysis
  • Mobilisation for joint action

Harold Goodwin

be self critical
Be self critical
  • Reflect on your practice – how participative/ transparent is it?
  • Think about your ethics – are you being manipulative/manipulated?
  • Put something back.

Harold Goodwin

3 livelihoods analysis
3 Livelihoods Analysis

The Impacts of Tourism on Rural

Livelihoods: Namibia’s Experience

Caroline Ashley

Harold Goodwin

livelihood approach
Livelihood Approach
  • Livelihood analysis is a methodology, which can be used to analyse the contribution that different forms of tourism might make to the livelihoods of the local people.
  • The great advantage of livelihood analysis is that it provides a methodology that looks at the positive and negative impacts of a particular form of tourism development upon the livelihoods of the poor.

Harold Goodwin

livelihood assets the livelihood building blocks
Livelihood Assets “the livelihood building blocks”:

Financial Capital – cash at hand or which can be borrowed

Human Capital – the skills base of particular individuals and of the group

Natural Capital – the resources of the environment available to individuals and the group: water resources, forest, arable land, pasture, rivers and lakes, wildlife

Physical Capital – buildings, machinery, equipment

Social Capital - the social cohesion of the group and the strength of its networks.

Harold Goodwin

  • Ashley C. (2000) The Impacts of Tourism on Rural Livelihoods: Namibia's Experience, Overseas Development Institute Working Paper 128

Harold Goodwin

  • Addressing a full range of costs and benefits
  • Matching tourism options to livelihood priorities

Harold Goodwin