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To Address Underage Drinking. Communities working with the judiciary. To obtain copies of today's program materials please visit: Panelists. Dr. Ted Miller

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to address underage drinking
To Address Underage Drinking

Communities working with the judiciary

To obtain copies of today's

program materials please visit:


Dr. Ted Miller

Principle Research ScientistPacific Institute for Research and EvaluationCalverton, Maryland

Ms. Sheila R. Nesbitt

Chief of Training and Technical Assistance

Minnesota Institute of Public Health

Mounds View, Minnesota

Mr. Kevin P. Richard, MA

Director of Juvenile Services/Specialty Courts

Rhode Island Family Court.

Providence, Rhode Island

dr ted miller
Dr. Ted Miller

Principle Research ScientistPacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

Calverton, Maryland

really big business
Really Big Business

13.6 million underage customers in 2007

$1,820 in annual alcohol sales per kid who drinks illegally


Booze Consumed

When BAC Will Be > .08

the alcohol industry denies it markets to kids
The alcohol industry denies it markets to kids
  • But the signs are everywhere
  • Are alcopops for the martini crowd or the beer bellies?
  • Were the Budweiser frogs, the dinosaurs, or the clever dogs?
a devastating tidal wave of alcohol related harm resulted
A Devastating Tidal Wave of Alcohol-Related Harm Resulted
  • 3170 deaths
  • 300 K DWI crashes
  • 540 K violent crimes
  • 1.2 million property crimes
  • 400 K risky sexual encounters
  • 100K alcohol poisonings & psychoses
  • 70 K kids in alcohol treatment
Lowering MLDA from 21 to 18 would raise alcohol-involved suicide acts among 18 to 20 year olds by 27%
Crime: Surveys of Youth Custody & Youth in Adult Custody (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

40% of Medically Treated Assault Victims Are BAC-PositiveVictimization Is 7-10 Times As Likely When Someone Is Alcohol-Positive As When (S)he Is Sober

the costs are for events caused by alcohol
The Costs are for Events Caused by Alcohol
  • 90% of alcohol-involved crashes
  • 50% of alcohol-involved crime & risky sex
divide by a sensible exposure measure
Divide by a Sensible Exposure Measure
  • $5100 Per Underage Drinker
  • $2280 Per Youth Ages 14-20
  • $3.30 Per Illegal Drink
fact sheets by state available
Fact sheets by state available

On web at

  • % of alcohol consumed by youth
  • Costs

2007 update will be out shortly

journal of studies on alcohol july 2006
Journal of Studies on AlcoholJuly 2006
  • Societal Costs of Underage Drinking
  • Ted Miller, David Levy, Rebecca Spicer & Dexter Taylor
  • Underage drinking is a big, profitable business
  • It causes $68 B in harm annually; more than $3/drink
  • Crimes account for >80% of the costs
  • Almost 40% of youth violence involves alcohol
  • In 18% of DWI deaths, underage drinkers were driving
underage drinking and related crimes

Underage Drinkingand Related Crimes

Ted R Miller, PhD

Principal Research Associate

Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation


ms sheila nesbitt
Ms. Sheila Nesbitt

Chief of Training and Technical Assistance

Minnesota Institute of Public Health

Mounds View, Minnesota

zero adult provider zap
Zero Adult Provider (ZAP)
  • Started in St. Paul in 1999.
  • Law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, probation, campus/community coalition.
  • Focus on identifying and charging adult providers.
  • Improve effectiveness of sanctions for underage consumers.
zap roadmap
ZAP Roadmap
  • Know if and when underage drinking is happening
  • Identify and charge not only the underage drinkers, but more importantly, the illegal provider
  • Ensure consequences make a difference
growth of zap
Growth of ZAP
  • Currently 19 of 87 counties received EUDL funds.
  • Average 253% increase in adult provider arrests in first year of project.
  • PIRE case study released July 2009.
role of judges
Role of Judges
  • Judges make great champions.
  • If a judges invites them, they will be there.
  • Can make things happen.
  • Respected voice for the issue.
  • Direct court scheduling and procedure, including probation.
  • Search warrants
considerations limitations
  • Separate and distinct from Executive Branch (law enforcement).
  • Neutrality.
  • Not everything is within their control.
how to work with judges
How To Work with Judges
  • A judge from another district
  • Who in your community has a strong relationship?
  • Ask their opinion. Don’t tell them what to do.
  • Understand their philosophy.
  • Give them credit.
persuasive arguments
Persuasive Arguments
  • Change in domestic violence.
  • Costs of underage drinking.
  • Early intervention.
  • Role in prevention.
kevin p richard
Kevin P. Richard

Director of Juvenile Services/Specialty Courts

Rhode Island Family Court

Providence, Rhode Island

the rhode island family court alcohol calendar

The Rhode Island Family Court Alcohol Calendar

Chief Judge Jeremiah S. Jeremiah, Jr.

  • Formation of the RI Alcohol Calendar began in 2007.
  • Several high profile cases involving underage drinking.
  • Although RI has a unified court system, there was a lack of uniformity throughout cities and towns in handling underage drinking. Additionally, reporting interventions and outcomes was insufficient.
  • Increasing awareness that family involvement is a necessary requirement for effective intervention.
the relationship between the alcohol calendar and problem solving courts
The Relationship between the Alcohol Calendar and Problem Solving Courts
  • Complimentary
  • Similar: voluntary, employ a range of incentives and sanctions; petitions will be dismissed if successful; focus on treatment; incorporates a team approach.
  • Different: The Alcohol Calendar is more diversionary in nature; shorter in duration (approximately 3 months); employs greater use of random breathalyzers/alcohol screens; less dependent on funding issues.
  • For juveniles on the Alcohol Calendar that demonstrate the need for more individualized interventions, cases can be referred to the Juvenile Drug Court for longer supervision and additional mental health services.
alcohol use and hiv among juvenile drug court offenders tolou shams conrad houck brown
Alcohol Use and HIV Among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders(Tolou-Shams, Conrad, Houck, & Brown)
  • Many juvenile offenders actively enrolled in a drug court program report continued heavy alcohol use.
  • Juvenile “drinkers” engage in more HIV/STI risk behaviors, such as unprotected sexual activity and using substances during sex.
  • Higher rates of sensation seeking among juvenile “drinkers” may also increase risk for other drug use (including cocaine), alcohol and marijuana relapse and recidivism.
  • Juvenile Drug Court programs may benefit from greater emphasis on specific alcohol-related interventions as well as integrated treatments that include content related to sexual and other co-occurring risk behaviors.
necessary components
Necessary Components
  • Judicial commitment
  • Cooperation from local towns and law enforcement. It was necessary in RI for the court to centralize interventions and supports.
  • Judicial staff: Judge, Courtroom support, and a case manager. Some technical support may be necessary for data entry.
  • Community service providers. RI placed a heavy focus on academic institutions and hospitals due to their capacity to provide a service, collect data, and produce measurable outcomes. All services are free to the families, and in some cases, incentives are available.
referral process
Referral Process
  • Police departments make the commitment to file with the court system and participate with the program when appropriate.
  • Cases are screened through the RI Family Court Intake Department. alcohol charges or alcohol related incidents are referred to the Alcohol Calendar for an initial hearing. The Family Court issues summons/notices.
  • Exclusions: Because RI statutes are very specific for DWI charges these cases are referred to the traditional juvenile calendar of the drug court. Juveniles with an extensive Family Court record are excluded for the Alcohol Calendar.
  • At the initial hearing, a Family Court case worker meets with families (and attorneys) to provide a a description of the program and its objectives.
  • For families that opt out of the program, an arraignment and formal proceeding will follow. For families that enter the program conditions are set and referrals for services begin.
conditions agreement
  • Youth must refrain from using alcohol and drugs
  • Youth must be available day or night for random breathalyzers (administered by local police or court staff). Drug screens may also be employed.
  • Youth must abide by court curfew
  • Youth must attend school regularly, be on time and maintain an appropriate grade point average.
  • Youth must follow the lawful commands of his/her parents
  • Extra curricular activities may be revoked at the discretion of the court (and school officials). It is vital to ensure the court, school and parents are coordinating efforts at this level.
brief but targeted interventions
Brief but Targeted Interventions
  • Reducing Youthful Dangerous Driving (RYDD) – Rhode Island Hospital
    • Targets high risk behaviors
  • Teen Alcohol Prevention Program (TAP2)- Brown University’s Center for Alcohol and Addictions Studies (Anthony Spirito, PhD)
    • Targets family intervention
ri statistics
RI Statistics

According to 2007 Rhode Island Youth Risk Survey:

  • 28% of youth questioned rode in a vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking in the 30 days prior to the survey.
  • More than one third (36%) of the teen drivers who died in motor vehicle crashes between 2003 and 2007 had been drinking and 38% of teen passengers who died had also been drinking.
reducing youthful dangerous driving rydd
Reducing Youthful Dangerous Driving (RYDD)
  • Program run by the Injury Prevention Center at Rhode Island Hospital.
  • Has collaborated with the courts since 2001.
  • Educational Program designed to prevent motor vehicle crashes and reduce high-risk driving and alcohol and other drug use among RI Youth.
  • Ages:16-20
rydd cont
RYDD (cont.)
  • Referred youth are screened and given volunteer assignments that are completed within a four-week time period, totaling 20 hours.
  • Group Sessions: Youth collectively explore the link between substance abuse, high risk driving and motor vehicle crashes through facilitators, video, demonstrations, and essays.
rydd cont61
RYDD (cont.)
  • Volunteering in the Rhode Island Hospital Trauma Center.
  • Youth are assigned two weekend shifts.
  • Supervised by RYDD program staff.
  • Experience high intensity environment of emergencies often caused by vehicular accidents and/or substance related injuries.
brown university s center for alcohol and addiction studies brief family counseling
Brown University's Center for Alcohol and Addiction StudiesBrief Family Counseling
  • Adolescents seen in the Family Court are also referred to Brown University’s Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies (CAAS) where they receive a brief family counseling session (the Family Check-Up) as part of a research study.
family check up dishion kavanagh 2003
Family Check-Up(Dishion & Kavanagh, 2003)
  • Based on Motivational Interviewing principles
  • GOAL: Enhance parent recognition of child risk factors
  • Motivate parents to take action – especially with regard to monitoring, limit-setting, and communication
two sessions
Two Sessions
  • The Family Check-Up is separated into two sessions:
    • 1st session- data is collected from self-report questionnaires and observational videotaped family interaction tasks
    • 2nd session- parent returns to receive feedback based on the data collected at the initial visit
parent feedback session
Parent Feedback Session
  • Review Family Assessment Data
  • Set goals – where would you like to improve?
  • Explore commitment to change
  • Explore barriers to change (Pros & Cons)
  • Support self-efficacy
family check up study
Family Check-up Study
  • A recently completed study of alcohol-positive adolescents seen in the Emergency Room at Rhode Island Hospital demonstrated that the Family Check-Up resulted in lower alcohol and marijuana use over a 12 month period compared to an individual motivational interview.
new family check up study
New Family Check-up Study
  • A new grant to which families are currently being referred is testing whether meeting with the teenager with the alcohol- related event and a teenage sibling will result in better long term outcomes for both teens. Families may choose to take part in the research or simply receive brief family or individual counseling as a service.
recidivism 2007 present
Recidivism (2007 – Present)
  • More longitudinal data is needed
  • N=85 (graduates)
  • Total number recidivist: 6
  • Number of juveniles with a subsequent alcohol charge: 0
  • Number of juveniles with a subsequent drug related charge: 1 (possession of marijuana)
  • Number of juveniles with a subsequent non-alcohol/drug charge: 5
pacific institute for research and evaluation
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

Judicial-Probation Project

11720 Beltsville Drive, Suite 900

Calverton, MD 20705-3102


our next program
Our Next Program

“Judges to Judges on Underage Drinking”

Wednesday, September 30, 2009, 3:00 - 4:15 pm

Eastern Time