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Human Biotechnology

Human Biotechnology

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Human Biotechnology

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  1. Human Biotechnology

  2. Human Biotechnology • is about you and me, not about other creatures on Earth • could a perfect person be in the near future

  3. Human Biotechnology • we are not sure if we want one, or if we do, what traits we would want

  4. The Human Organism • humans are similar to other animals, but major differences • scientific name of human = Homo Sapiens

  5. The Human Organism • first Homo Sapiens on earth- 300,000 to 400,000years ago • each body cell of a human has 46 chromosomes

  6. The Human Organism • human consists of cells, tissue, organs, organ systems • humans are primates (180 species of animals are primates), but still quite different

  7. The Human Organism • organ systems do a lot of work (e.g. the heart - at age of 70 it has pumped 46 million gallons)

  8. The Human Organism • heart failure is leading cause of the human death • skeleton protects the internal organs

  9. The Human Organism • ligaments are tissues that hold the skeleton together • skin covers the body and maintains the body temperature

  10. The Human Organism • nerve endings in skin sense pain, cold, heat… • brain provides response to these conditions

  11. The Human Organism • muscles provide movement • cells must have nutrients to correctly function

  12. The Human Organism • digestive system breaks food into useful substances • respiratory system provides oxygen to the body and rids it of carbon dioxide

  13. The Human Organism • gas exchange with the blood occurs in the lungs

  14. The Human Organism • circulatory system (heart, blood vessels) carries oxygen from the lungs for the cells and brings wastes to the lungs and kidneys

  15. The Human Organism • urinary system removes certain wastes from blood and flushes them from the body

  16. The Human Organism • wastes move to urinary bladder and is squeezed from the body through the urethra • reproductive systems vary with gender

  17. The Human Organism • mammary system develops in females (milk for babies)

  18. Life Process • includes growth and repair, obtaining food and nutrients, circulation, respiration, secretion, sensation movement, and elimination

  19. Life Process • reproduction - human continues as new generations

  20. Life Process • humans have high developed brain and gives us the abilities to speak, to reason, to create technology

  21. Life Process • to stand up right, to walk on two legs distinguish us from the primates • humans live longer and develop slower

  22. Human Development • is the progressive maturation of an individual from birth until death • culture consists of the ways individuals have developed to go about life

  23. Human Development • characteristics are transmitted from one to another generation

  24. Developmental Stages • combination of biological and cultural advancement has several developmental stages

  25. Developmental Stages • common stages are: -Infancy-Preschool-Child Years-Teenage Years-Adulthood

  26. Biotech Supports Development • used to promote health • ethical decisions are involved • people vary about the view of biotech

  27. Human Genomics • is all of the genes that comprise the genetic makeup of humans • is the total genetic composition of humans

  28. Human Genomics • efforts are now underway to identify all genomes • will allow isolation, treatment, replacement of defective ones

  29. Human Genome Project • (HGP) is an international effort of involving scientists, educators, students in locating and identifying every human gene

  30. Human Genome Project • HGP • large task • will provide insight into evolution

  31. 4 Approaches • Genetic Mapping • Physical Mapping • Sequencing • Analyzing genomes of other species

  32. 4 Approaches to HGP Genetic Mapping Physical Mapping Sequencing Analyzing genomes of other species

  33. Background • Human Genome Organization (HUGO) is an international group that coordinates HGP • formed in 1988

  34. Background • Canada, Italy, France, UK, USA are active • efforts with mice, bacteria, plants

  35. Background • 3 bacterial genomes have been completed • progress has been more rapid than expected • widespread use of HGP information in 2010

  36. Findings • human organism has about 100,000 genes • has 23 pairs of chromosomes - 22 autosomal chromosome pairs and 1 sex chromosome pair ( YY or XX)

  37. Findings • more than 3 billion base pairs in haploid genome • an autosome is a chromosome that is not sex chromosome

  38. Findings • physical maps show locations of and distances between genes and DNA fragments

  39. Findings • genetic linkage map shows the relative arrangement and distance between genes • then DNA gets sequenced

  40. Helping Humans live better • scientist have been manipulating genes at the molecular level • these efforts improve human well being

  41. Helping Humans live better • down’s syndrome is a disease in which a baby is born with an extra chromosome

  42. Helping Humans live better • 1 in 600- 800 babies is born with it • having a baby with down syndrome increase with the mother’s age

  43. Helping Humans Live Better • small head, enlarged tongue, eyes that slant upward • many die within year • no treatments available

  44. Gene Therapy • is the transfer of genes to a human organism • make up of a human is altered

  45. Gene Therapy • procedure is controversial • once therapy is done, the human is a GMO (genetically modified organism)

  46. Vaccine • help the body to recognize and fight disease • use weakened or killed germs for a virus to introduce antigen proteins attached to a virus

  47. Vaccine • body builds resistance • vaccine for hepatitis is made by inserting the gene responsible for this antigen into yeast cells

  48. Vaccine • each yeast cell makes a copy of itself and the antigen gene • antigen is later purified

  49. Vaccine • when injected into the body, antigen stimulates the production of antibodies that combat hepatitis

  50. Prosthetics • is the use of artificial parts of the human body • includes the study and use of mechanical devises to replace or supplement natural human parts