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Human Biotechnology. Human Biotechnology. is about you and me, not about other creatures on Earth could a perfect person be in the near future. Human Biotechnology. we are not sure if we want one, or if we do, what traits we would want. The Human Organism.

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human biotechnology2
Human Biotechnology
  • is about you and me, not about other creatures on Earth
  • could a perfect person be in the near future
human biotechnology3
Human Biotechnology
  • we are not sure if we want one, or if we do, what traits we would want
the human organism
The Human Organism
  • humans are similar to other animals, but major differences
  • scientific name of human = Homo Sapiens
the human organism5
The Human Organism
  • first Homo Sapiens on earth- 300,000 to 400,000years ago
  • each body cell of a human has 46 chromosomes
the human organism6
The Human Organism
  • human consists of cells, tissue, organs, organ systems
  • humans are primates (180 species of animals are primates), but still quite different
the human organism7
The Human Organism
  • organ systems do a lot of work (e.g. the heart - at age of 70 it has pumped 46 million gallons)
the human organism8
The Human Organism
  • heart failure is leading cause of the human death
  • skeleton protects the internal organs
the human organism9
The Human Organism
  • ligaments are tissues that hold the skeleton together
  • skin covers the body and maintains the body temperature
the human organism10
The Human Organism
  • nerve endings in skin sense pain, cold, heat…
  • brain provides response to these conditions
the human organism11
The Human Organism
  • muscles provide movement
  • cells must have nutrients to correctly function
the human organism12
The Human Organism
  • digestive system breaks food into useful substances
  • respiratory system provides oxygen to the body and rids it of carbon dioxide
the human organism13
The Human Organism
  • gas exchange with the blood occurs in the lungs
the human organism14
The Human Organism
  • circulatory system (heart, blood vessels) carries oxygen from the lungs for the cells and brings wastes to the lungs and kidneys
the human organism15
The Human Organism
  • urinary system removes certain wastes from blood and flushes them from the body
the human organism16
The Human Organism
  • wastes move to urinary bladder and is squeezed from the body through the urethra
  • reproductive systems vary with gender
the human organism17
The Human Organism
  • mammary system develops in females (milk for babies)
life process
Life Process
  • includes growth and repair, obtaining food and nutrients, circulation, respiration, secretion, sensation movement, and elimination
life process19
Life Process
  • reproduction - human continues as new generations
life process20
Life Process
  • humans have high developed brain and gives us the abilities to speak, to reason, to create technology
life process21
Life Process
  • to stand up right, to walk on two legs distinguish us from the primates
  • humans live longer and develop slower
human development
Human Development
  • is the progressive maturation of an individual from birth until death
  • culture consists of the ways individuals have developed to go about life
human development23
Human Development
  • characteristics are transmitted from one to another generation
developmental stages
Developmental Stages
  • combination of biological and cultural advancement has several developmental stages
developmental stages25
Developmental Stages
  • common stages are: -Infancy-Preschool-Child Years-Teenage Years-Adulthood
biotech supports development
Biotech Supports Development
  • used to promote health
  • ethical decisions are involved
  • people vary about the view of biotech
human genomics
Human Genomics
  • is all of the genes that comprise the genetic makeup of humans
  • is the total genetic composition of humans
human genomics28
Human Genomics
  • efforts are now underway to identify all genomes
  • will allow isolation, treatment, replacement of defective ones
human genome project
Human Genome Project
  • (HGP) is an international effort of involving scientists, educators, students in locating and identifying every human gene
human genome project30
Human Genome Project
  • HGP
  • large task
  • will provide insight into evolution
4 approaches
4 Approaches
  • Genetic Mapping
  • Physical Mapping
  • Sequencing
  • Analyzing genomes of other species
4 approaches to hgp
4 Approaches to HGP

Genetic Mapping

Physical Mapping

Sequencing

Analyzing genomes of other species

background
Background
  • Human Genome Organization (HUGO) is an international group that coordinates HGP
  • formed in 1988
background34
Background
  • Canada, Italy, France, UK, USA are active
  • efforts with mice, bacteria, plants
background35
Background
  • 3 bacterial genomes have been completed
  • progress has been more rapid than expected
  • widespread use of HGP information in 2010
findings
Findings
  • human organism has about 100,000 genes
  • has 23 pairs of chromosomes - 22 autosomal chromosome pairs and 1 sex chromosome pair ( YY or XX)
findings37
Findings
  • more than 3 billion base pairs in haploid genome
  • an autosome is a chromosome that is not sex chromosome
findings38
Findings
  • physical maps show locations of and distances between genes and DNA fragments
findings39
Findings
  • genetic linkage map shows the relative arrangement and distance between genes
  • then DNA gets sequenced
helping humans live better
Helping Humans live better
  • scientist have been manipulating genes at the molecular level
  • these efforts improve human well being
helping humans live better41
Helping Humans live better
  • down’s syndrome is a disease in which a baby is born with an extra chromosome
helping humans live better42
Helping Humans live better
  • 1 in 600- 800 babies is born with it
  • having a baby with down syndrome increase with the mother’s age
helping humans live better43
Helping Humans Live Better
  • small head, enlarged tongue, eyes that slant upward
  • many die within year
  • no treatments available
gene therapy
Gene Therapy
  • is the transfer of genes to a human organism
  • make up of a human is altered
gene therapy45
Gene Therapy
  • procedure is controversial
  • once therapy is done, the human is a GMO (genetically modified organism)
vaccine
Vaccine
  • help the body to recognize and fight disease
  • use weakened or killed germs for a virus to introduce antigen proteins attached to a virus
vaccine47
Vaccine
  • body builds resistance
  • vaccine for hepatitis is made by inserting the gene responsible for this antigen into yeast cells
vaccine48
Vaccine
  • each yeast cell makes a copy of itself and the antigen gene
  • antigen is later purified
vaccine49
Vaccine
  • when injected into the body, antigen stimulates the production of antibodies that combat hepatitis
prosthetics
Prosthetics
  • is the use of artificial parts of the human body
  • includes the study and use of mechanical devises to replace or supplement natural human parts
prosthetics51
Prosthetics
  • that includes joint replacements, heart peacemakers, intraocular lenses
prosthetics52
Prosthetics
  • a dialysis machine is a kind of prosthesis that performs functions normal kidneys would do in removing wastes from blood
prosthetics53
Prosthetics
  • biocompatibility - implanted devices must be mechanically fit for the purpose and not rejected by the body
prosthetics54
Prosthetics
  • externally used devices must provide the appropriate mechanical action and support
prosthetics55
Prosthetics
  • carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that develops when people do the same activities over and over
  • mechanical devices are used to promote healing
diagnostics
Diagnostics
  • is the identification of a human health problem or other conditions
  • knowing the approach to use in treating disease requires accurate diagnosis of condition
genomics and computers
Genomics and Computers
  • diagnosis relies on human genetic information
  • computer databases are being used in diagnostics
  • help matching genes with health conditions
microdissection and molecular analysis
Microdissection and Molecular Analysis
  • Microdissection is a method of obtaining pure cells from diseased sections of tissue
microdissection and molecular analysis59
Microdissection and Molecular Analysis
  • is often used to test for precancerous cells or invading cancer cells
microdissection and molecular analysis60
Microdissection and Molecular Analysis
  • molecular analysis can be used to study the cells for evidence of disease
microdissection and molecular analysis61
Microdissection and Molecular Analysis
  • allows comparison with diseased DNA stored in microdissected libraries or bulk tissue libraries