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## where m = mass of object v = speed of object

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**Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An object which has**motion - whether it be vertical or horizontal motion - has kinetic energy. There are many forms of kinetic energy - vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion), rotational (the energy due to rotational motion), and translational (the energy due to motion from one location to another).**To keep matters simple, we will focus upon translational**kinetic energy. The amount of translational kinetic energy (from here on, the phrase kinetic energy will refer to translational kinetic energy) which an object has depends upon two variables: the mass (m) of the object and the speed (v) of the object. The following equation is used to represent the kinetic energy (KE) of an object.**where m = mass of objectv = speed of object**This equation reveals that the kinetic energy of an object is directly proportional to the square of its speed. That means that for a twofold increase in speed, the kinetic energy will increase by a factor of four.**Thermal energy – is the total potential energy and kinetic**energy of an object’s particle.Convection – is heat transfer movement of matter. When water is heated on a stove, for example, water near the bottom of the of the pot rises by convection.**Conduction – is the heat transfer by movement of**particles. Example: A metal spoon in a bowl of hot soup is warmed by conduction of heat from particle to particle along the length of the spoon. Radiation – is the heat transfer by electromagnetic waves. Unlike convection and conduction, radiation can move through empty space as well as through matter. Example: energy from the sun travels by radiation through space.**The temperature of the substance increaess as it absorbs**heat. Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a substance by 10C. Land near a lake or ocean, for example, changes temperature faster than water that is nearby because water has a higher specific heat than land.**Radiant Energy – energy coming from the sun.**Mechanical Energy – energy of moving objects.**ENERGY CHANGES Energy often changes from one form to**another. A rock on a cliff has only gravitational potential energy, but if the rock falls, the energy changes to kinetic energy. A light bulb changes electrical energy to thermal energy and light. Chemical energy in gasoline changes to kinetic energy as a car moves.

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