robotics from the seven dwarves to r2d2 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2! PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2!

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 16

Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 284 Views
  • Uploaded on

Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2! Dr Richard Mitchell Department of Cybernetics School of Systems Engineering The University of Reading R.J.Mitchell@rdg.ac.uk http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~shsmchlr/ Introduction Robotics ‘are taking over our daily lives’

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2!' - jacob


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
robotics from the seven dwarves to r2d2

Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2!

Dr Richard Mitchell

Department of Cybernetics

School of Systems Engineering

The University of Reading

R.J.Mitchell@rdg.ac.uk

http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~shsmchlr/

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

introduction
Introduction
  • Robotics ‘are taking over our daily lives’
  • The wide range of applications is increasing
  • from sorting mail to stroke patients rehabilitation
  • They require advanced autonomy (local intelligence)
  • even for robots near at hand
  • but especially for remote robots (eg Mars Rover)
  • This lecture shows how Robotics fits into Cybernetics
  • Why intelligence is needed in robotic control
  • And describes work done with simple ‘intelligent’ robots from our ‘Seven Dwarves’ to R2D2.

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

slide3

Cybernetics

- a Different Perspective

Fundamental principles, such as feedback, applicable to a great variety of diverse systems, technological, environmental, and/or biological

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

feedback for control of boat
Feedback for Control of Boat

Also for control of car direction, car speed, etc.

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

feedback for robot arm
Feedback for Robot Arm

In fact, need such feedback control for each joint

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

intelligent control
Intelligent Control
  • In principle feedback can be used to control devices
  • But, it is not a trivial problem in reality
  • (there is a 3 year degree Cybernetics & Control Engineering which covers control in detail!)
  • If remote control, then control is difficult because of the delay in the feedback loop
  • ( ever tried controlling shower at tap … )
  • Thus for more sophisticated devices it is better if
  • a) there is local control
  • b) there is intelligent control – able to adapt

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

this requires learning
This Requires Learning

And Learning is a feedback process

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

artificial stupidity
Artificial Stupidity
  • Learning and Artificial Intelligence have been researched for over 50 years
  • Non trivial problem, not properly solved
  • Often problems attempted are too difficult
  • We decided to start with simpler problems
  • Borrow from nature – what are simple + successful ?
  • Answer – insects – devices with built in instincts – able to do simple tasks
  • Decided to make ‘robotic insects’ – able to learn

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

basic robot
Basic Robot

Can perceive environment – ultrasonic sensors

Explore environment – control each motor

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

seven dwarves and learning
Seven Dwarves and Learning
  • Seven Built – named Happy, Grumpy etc.
  • Pre-programmed for tasks like explore and not bump into objects
  • Robot provided with rules like:
  • if object on left, right motor back, left motor forward
  • Or students set problem solve task –write the rules
  • But Kevin Warwick wanted the robots to learn
  • Team of me, Dave Keating, Chandra K., and Ian’s
  • Needed a learning strategy – chose trial and error - also used by young babies …

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

learning strategy
Learning Strategy
  • 9 possible Actions : each motor Forward / Off / Back
  • Each Action has Probability of being chosen
  • Do
  • Robot chooses Action – most Probable is most likely to be chosen, and Action carried out
  • Success of Action Evaluated – as instinct
  • In open, good to move forward (explore)
  • Else, good to move away from object
  • If good, increase Probability of Action
  • Otherwise, decrease Probability

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

multiple automata
Multiple Automata
  • Such a set of actions / probabilities – an Automaton
  • BUT, different actions appropriate under different circumstances
  • So have five different Automata
  • one for open,
  • one for object very close on left,
  • one for object only near on left, etc
  • Robot thus chooses appropriate Automaton
  • Then chooses Action based on Probability, etc.

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

and more
And More
  • Method applied successfully
  • Extra sensors have been added
  • Robots allowed to communicate
  • with other robots – shared learning
  • with computers
  • had one robot teaching another in US over WWW
  • Have also built Six legged robots (more insect like)
  • these have learnt ‘gait’ for moving
  • Students build robots in Part 2 and Part 3 Projects

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

real robots
Real Robots

Given robot’s success, others wanted to have / build them.

So collaborated with Eaglemoss publishers – magazine with robot parts …

http://www.realrobots.co.uk

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

r2 d2 toy
R2-D2 Toy

Designed by ex-Cybernetics lecturer, Dave Keating.

Arose from research here

Feedback control of motors for body/head movement

Change ‘loop gain’ for different behaviour

Can follow ‘human’

If move towards it fast, R2 backs off, etc.

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

summary
Summary
  • Robots are examples of cybernetic systems
  • More sophisticated robots need to be able to learn :
  • learning being a cybernetic process
  • We have used robots as test beds for learning
  • And have had much fun with them
  • There are numerous applications of robots
  • Some more you will be able to see as part of what we are showing in the Department of Cybernetics - part of the School of Systems Engineering.

Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2

© Dr Richard Mitchell 2004