Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

jacob
robotics from the seven dwarves to r2d2 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2! PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2!

play fullscreen
1 / 16
Download Presentation
Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2!
295 Views
Download Presentation

Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2!

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Robotics: From the Seven Dwarves to R2D2! Dr Richard Mitchell Department of Cybernetics School of Systems Engineering The University of Reading R.J.Mitchell@rdg.ac.uk http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~shsmchlr/ Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  2. Introduction • Robotics ‘are taking over our daily lives’ • The wide range of applications is increasing • from sorting mail to stroke patients rehabilitation • They require advanced autonomy (local intelligence) • even for robots near at hand • but especially for remote robots (eg Mars Rover) • This lecture shows how Robotics fits into Cybernetics • Why intelligence is needed in robotic control • And describes work done with simple ‘intelligent’ robots from our ‘Seven Dwarves’ to R2D2. Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  3. Cybernetics - a Different Perspective Fundamental principles, such as feedback, applicable to a great variety of diverse systems, technological, environmental, and/or biological Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  4. Feedback for Control of Boat Also for control of car direction, car speed, etc. Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  5. Feedback for Robot Arm In fact, need such feedback control for each joint Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  6. Intelligent Control • In principle feedback can be used to control devices • But, it is not a trivial problem in reality • (there is a 3 year degree Cybernetics & Control Engineering which covers control in detail!) • If remote control, then control is difficult because of the delay in the feedback loop • ( ever tried controlling shower at tap … ) • Thus for more sophisticated devices it is better if • a) there is local control • b) there is intelligent control – able to adapt Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  7. This Requires Learning And Learning is a feedback process Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  8. Artificial Stupidity • Learning and Artificial Intelligence have been researched for over 50 years • Non trivial problem, not properly solved • Often problems attempted are too difficult • We decided to start with simpler problems • Borrow from nature – what are simple + successful ? • Answer – insects – devices with built in instincts – able to do simple tasks • Decided to make ‘robotic insects’ – able to learn Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  9. Basic Robot Can perceive environment – ultrasonic sensors Explore environment – control each motor Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  10. Seven Dwarves and Learning • Seven Built – named Happy, Grumpy etc. • Pre-programmed for tasks like explore and not bump into objects • Robot provided with rules like: • if object on left, right motor back, left motor forward • Or students set problem solve task –write the rules • But Kevin Warwick wanted the robots to learn • Team of me, Dave Keating, Chandra K., and Ian’s • Needed a learning strategy – chose trial and error - also used by young babies … Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  11. Learning Strategy • 9 possible Actions : each motor Forward / Off / Back • Each Action has Probability of being chosen • Do • Robot chooses Action – most Probable is most likely to be chosen, and Action carried out • Success of Action Evaluated – as instinct • In open, good to move forward (explore) • Else, good to move away from object • If good, increase Probability of Action • Otherwise, decrease Probability Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  12. Multiple Automata • Such a set of actions / probabilities – an Automaton • BUT, different actions appropriate under different circumstances • So have five different Automata • one for open, • one for object very close on left, • one for object only near on left, etc • Robot thus chooses appropriate Automaton • Then chooses Action based on Probability, etc. Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  13. And More • Method applied successfully • Extra sensors have been added • Robots allowed to communicate • with other robots – shared learning • with computers • had one robot teaching another in US over WWW • Have also built Six legged robots (more insect like) • these have learnt ‘gait’ for moving • Students build robots in Part 2 and Part 3 Projects Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  14. Real Robots Given robot’s success, others wanted to have / build them. So collaborated with Eaglemoss publishers – magazine with robot parts … http://www.realrobots.co.uk Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  15. R2-D2 Toy Designed by ex-Cybernetics lecturer, Dave Keating. Arose from research here Feedback control of motors for body/head movement Change ‘loop gain’ for different behaviour Can follow ‘human’ If move towards it fast, R2 backs off, etc. Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004

  16. Summary • Robots are examples of cybernetic systems • More sophisticated robots need to be able to learn : • learning being a cybernetic process • We have used robots as test beds for learning • And have had much fun with them • There are numerous applications of robots • Some more you will be able to see as part of what we are showing in the Department of Cybernetics - part of the School of Systems Engineering. Robotics : From Seven Dwarfs to R2D2 © Dr Richard Mitchell 2004