Robotics Recap, Manufacturing, NXT-G features, sound Lab work: [Show bump exercise. Add sound. Combine sound & bump]. Start off with sound. Use buttons to indicate turning left or right. MAKE sounds. Display messages. Homework: postings (hints at topics). Combine sound, bump, timing…
Recap • IMPORTANT to check ports for motors and ports for sensors! • Can use threads: two processes going on at the same time. • one process with the loop using the bump senosr • second process waiting for sound
NXT-G • For sensors: • Wait for specific event to happen, such as triggering sensor, clicking on button, receiving Blue tooth message • sensory event can have a level, greater or less than • Check value of sensor, button, message • Which do you want? In more complex situations, such as waiting for one of the 3 buttons, makes sense to use checking block
Parallel threads Specific application: tribot (or something) does something, with some human action. If NO action occurs for 5 seconds, stop. How to check for nothing happening? • The 'active' thread resets the timer each iteration. The other thread exits the loop and issues a stop. • Note: NXT-G provides 3 timers. • There is a separate wait until time passes block. • Note: loops using logic can loop until true or loop until false. • timer block has several outputs. Make sure you use the one you want, in this case, the results of the compare.
Other ways? • I am sure there are other ways to do this.
Threads… • can start at any point, not just the start.
Classes of manufacturing • Custom • Intermittent • Continuous May be outdated, or lines less definite.
Types of processing • Assembly • Putting things together • Fabrication • Forming, casting, taking away, putting together, etc. • Chemical [type] processing.IBM terms: process (semiconductor, chip) plants versus box plants See Taxonomy of Manufacturing: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy_of_manufacturing_processes
Semiconductor manufacturing • Wafer of silicon (crystal needs to be grown and then sliced) • Circuitry ‘laid down’ using various techniques, including lithography • Slice and dice into chips • Clean room Moore’s Law: number of transistors in a circuit doubles every 18 months. How long can this continue???? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor_fabrication Old news, but typical http://www.macworld.com/news/2007/01/27/intel/index.php Apple iPad http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-02-02/apple-s-jobs-spurns-intel-qualcomm-with-a4-ipad-chip-update2-.html
Automation • Fixed automation • Flexible automation • Machining… • Robotics • Variant of flexible automation: • Data-driven, computer integrated manufacturing…. Including robotics
Comment • Much automation already in manufacturing that is NOT robotics. • Many advances in manufacturing relate to logistics and to design. • CAD/CAM for design, including testing mold for plastics. • Now, also 3D printing for prototyping
Painting cars, welding, etc. • Robot [arms] • Teach/playback system • Economical because of health requirements • These environmental / health requirements are relatively new.
Critical factors for automation (robotics) • Air quality (e.g. painting cars) • Miniaturization: operation not at human scale. True in much of computer manufacturing • Accuracy (precision) • Connection to data • Strength • Speed • Repeatibility (drudgery)
Manufacturing logistics • Most manufacturing involves multiple steps (aka stages) • Need to get parts & materials to stations • Need to test • Need to deliver finished products (aka distribution) • Issue of out-sourcing (of parts and materials, not people) to other companies and other sites for the same company
Toyota problems • Did expansion mean less controls on more suppliers? • Bad accelerator pad produced by US supplier • Note: small number of actual incidents, though several were serious!
Manufacturing methods • Build to order • Customer orders specific car, computer, etc. This prompts building of that item. • Build to stock • Estimate (guess) what will be needed. Build those items. Exercises: • What are advantages and disadvantages? • What products are typically built one way versus the other?
Comparison • Build to order means little or no waste BUT probably less efficient. Need time to switch between products. • Build to stock may be [much] more efficient but may mean that products are produced that no one wants to buy.
When? • Mass production versus made-to-order. • The iPod is a mass produced product that the customer customizes, makes very individual…
Comments • Company choice of products may or may not be important • Early IBM PC products were divided into different types to give different manufacturing sites work to do. [To my knowledge when at IBM] PCs were not profitable. • Sarong type dress example • ?
Just in time manufacturing • Don’t build product and don’t take delivery of parts until needed. • Advantages: lower costs for storage, postpone payment, may even postpone ordering • Disadvantage: no safety net of materials and parts, hard on suppliers.
Quality • Quality of final product • Quality of parts, materials, sub-assemblies • Shoe-tying: you can tie shoes with laces that are somewhat frayed and somewhat unbalanced. • Good enough (within spec) • Don’t pay in time, money, for higher quality than needed versus • Continual improvement / 6 Sigma • Aim for highly reliable process. Pays off. • Associated with Japanese manufacturing
Six Sigma (trademark of Motorola!) • Refers to normal distribution • Sigma is a standard deviation • Making a process be such that six sigma are within acceptable bounds means very little is outside…
Teleo-processing Reference: postings • Drones, surgery, rescue • Issue of levels • Person has control, ‘in the feedback loop, but robot may do considerable local processing. • Future topic: RoboDoc for surgery. Big advantage was use of positions from cat scans.
Preview • Library research project. • Propose topic (I will give approval or modification) for presentation • plus '1 pager': abstract + works cited + 1 picture • Postings are possible topics (must use at least 3 sources)
Posting ideas: [old] People • Joseph Engelberger Unimation HelpMate • Rodney Brooks Helen Greiner iRobot RedOwl • Marvin Minsky • Yasuo Kuniyoshi University of Tokyo • Makoto Shimojo University of Electro-Communications • Ralph Hollis Carnegie Mellon • Russ Taylor Johns Hopkins • William Bargar University of California at Davis • Peter Will USC • Andre Sharon Boston University
Posting ideas: fiction classics Read story[ies] AND at least 1 review/analysis! • Karl Kapek: RUR • Isaac Asimov: I, Robot (laws of robotics) • Philip Dick: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep (Bladerunner) • Arthur C. Clarke (others): 2001 • Anne McCaffrey: The Ship Who Sang • other
Posting ideas • Big Dog • Asimo • Robot soccer (various types) • Manufacturing • Home / Health care • Companions • Versus smart house • Military drones • Technology (automation) displacing workers • more
Sound …. is a vibration of a medium (say the air) The vibration is characterized as a wave Longitudinal wave: motion of medium in direction of motion of wave:see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longitudinal_wave
Characteristics of wave • Amplitude: maximum disturbance of the field • Frequency: number of times [something] happens per time unit • Measured in Hz: times/second • Wavelength: length of one wave, measured from mid-point to mid-point • Equals speed / frequency • Period: time between successive event • Inverse of frequency • speed
Sound attributes • Loudness related to amplitude • Pitch related to frequency • Most sounds are [very] complex waves • Flute, tuning fork simpler wave pattern than violin • Fourier transform (or fft) is a way to calculate how sound can be defined as set of simple sine waves • Signal (what you are trying to measure) versus noise (random, unwanted). Terminology refers to sound AND other signals.
Lego Sound sensor • Measures what ????? • [Build (add) sensor to base robot] • Do NXT brick tests. • With robot connected, Tools/Calibrate • This downloads program to run on robot. • Program • Move unlimited until sound sensor tripped • done using parallel thread • Move with power dependent on sound • Start the loop when there is a sound • can shout "start" or "stop" or "boola" • What does sound sensor measure?
Challenge • Move until sound at some level. • If sound at very high level, turn one way else turn the other way.
NXT-G control structures • Loop • Until logical condition true or false • Count • Infinite • Sensor test • If • If (Switch): multiple values. Need to de-select flat view
NXT-G • Variables (suit case) • Typed: logic, number, text • Write block and Read block • Arithmetic, comparison, logic • Change number to text • Random (dice) block
Lab • Program • [loop using bump sensor, stop on sound] • Use right and left buttons to indicate turn to right or turn to left. • Start the looping if there is a sound and after that (using threads) stop when there is a sound. • Go straight and stop on sound and then turn one way or another based on amount of sound. • Combine use of sound and bump sensors and timer
Homework • Continue postings • Manufacturing • military drones • health care / home care (smart house) • prosthetics • People • Fiction • ? • [Do any reading on mechanics. Post summary.]