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    1. Mathematics and Gender Studies: an Overview Andrea Blunck Department Mathematik Universitt Hamburg

    2. Outline of the talk Gender Studies on Mathematics: Introduction Classification of Research Topics Some Results Some Projects Some Ideas and Questions

    3. Gender Studies on Mathematics Introduction: Why is it so hard to do Gender Studies on Mathematics?

    4. Gender Studies on Mathematics joint with Irene Pieper-Seier (Oldenburg): entry Mathematics in the German Handbook Womens and Gender Studies A.B./I.P.-S.: Mathematik Genderforschung auf schwierigem Terrain, in: Beate Kortendiek/Ruth Becker (eds.): Handbuch Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung, 2008

    5. Gender Studies on Mathematics Mathematics is one of those scientific disciplines that are hard to access by womens and gender studies. The category gender seems to play no role in mathematics. The objects of mathematical research are abstract objects, studied only by logical deductions. Thus gender is neither an explicit nor an implicit topic of mathematical research. And the research methods look so objective that there seems to be no influence of the researchers.

    6. Gender Studies on Mathematics contents of mathematics hard to access by gender studies so far: research mainly on women in mathematics Gender Studies on Mathematics not yet established as a research area

    7. Gender Studies on Mathematics Classification of research topics history of mathematics didactics of mathematics mathematics as field of study or work science studies on mathematics

    8. Gender Studies on Mathematics Classification of research topics history of mathematics didactics of mathematics mathematics as field of study or work science studies on mathematics

    9. History of Mathematics biographies of individual women mathematicians groups of women mathematicians

    10. History of Mathematics biographies of individual women mathematicians, in order to appreciate these women make them and their contributions to mathematics visible

    11. Maria Gaetana Agnesi 1718 1799, Milan 1748 Instituzioni Analitiche ad Uso della Giovent Italiana: first book on analysis in Italian 1750 appointed professor of mathematics at the university of Bologna; but she never worked there 1752 she left mathematics

    12. Maria Gaetana Agnesi Agnesi was typical for women scientists of her time: no formal education not part of the scientific community exceptional U. Klens: Mathematikerinnen im 18. Jahrhundert, 1994 M. Mazzotti: The world of Maria Gaetana Agnesi, 2007

    13. Ruth Moufang 1905 1977 1930 PhD, Frankfurt 1936 habilitation but the Nazi regime did not allow her to teach: because she was a woman! 1957 first female professor of mathematics in Germany Literature: Irene Pieper-Seier

    14. History of Mathematics biographies of groups of women mathematicians, combined with a description of the history of womens education a reflection on the marginalization of women in mathematics

    15. History of Mathematics The first female PhDs in mathematics in Germany: Until 1908, eight women obtained their PhD in mathematics in Germany, among them seven women from abroad, e.g.: Sofia Kovalevskaya (Russia; Gttingen 1874) Grace Chisholm Young (UK; Gttingen 1895) Mary Frances Winston (USA; Gttingen 1897) They paved the way for German women. It was only in 1909 that women were allowed to study throughout Germany. Literature: Renate Tobies

    16. History of Mathematics Presentation of role models Motivation for female students: well, Emmy Noether, in algebra ..... when I heard about her, I went home and read a little bit about her, because I liked it that at least once there was a women and not always only men. Interview with a female math student from Hamburg. From a study by Dr. Anina Mischau (Bielefeld).

    17. Gender Studies on Mathematics Classification of research topics history of mathematics didactics of mathematics mathematics as field of study or work science studies on mathematics

    18. Didactics of Mathematics differences in achievement / in interests gender-sensitive teaching methods coeducation? doing gender in the classroom: in math classes girls actively contribute to the construction of femininity by acting as if they were low achievers (Sylvia Jahnke-Klein 2001)

    19. Gender Studies on Mathematics Classification of research topics history of mathematics didactics of mathematics mathematics as field of study or work science studies on mathematics

    20. Mathematics as field of study or work collecting statistical data sociological studies on students of mathematics on people working in mathematics

    21. Mathematics as field of study or work two studies carried out at the University of Oldenburg: Beate Curdes, Sylvia Jahnke-Klein, Wiebke Lohfeld, Irene Pieper-Seier 2003: Students of mathematics, their experiences and their plans for the future Karin Flaake, Kristina Hackmann, Irene Pieper-Seier, Stephanie Radtke 2006: Female professors of mathematics

    22. Mathematics as field of study or work Some results of these studies: female students of mathematics like mathematics because it is clear and reliable consider doing mathematical research / writing a PhD thesis as risky (this is not the case for male students)

    23. Mathematics as field of study or work Some results of these studies: most female professors of mathematics in Germany have been encouraged from the beginning of their careers were part of a research group already as a student

    24. Gender Studies on Mathematics Classification of research topics history of mathematics didactics of mathematics mathematics as field of study or work science studies on mathematics

    25. Science Studies on Mathematics so far: not much research some starting points: the image of mathematics female mathematics ?

    26. The image of mathematics mathematics is seen as a male discipline (e.g. in German speaking countries, in the UK) (how) does mathematics, and the teaching of mathematics, participate in constituting this male image and thus in the construction of gender? vicious circle (Paul Ernest, 1995): low percentage of women in mathematics gender-stereotypical image of mathematics

    27. Female mathematics? Origins of mathematical concepts Ellen Harlizius-Klck 2004: books on arithmetic in Euclids elements: seemingly no application possible origin: weaving work done by women

    28. Female mathematics? Ethnomathematics mathematics of non-western cultures implicit mathematical practices, e.g., in handicraft, art, architecture often carried out and handed down by women

    29. Female mathematics? Ethnomathematics Paulus Gerdes: Women, Art and Geometry in Southern Africa, 1998

    30. Female mathematics? Ethnomathematics Paulus Gerdes: Women, Art and Geometry in Southern Africa, 1998 review of this book, by Jens Hyrup:

    31. Female mathematics? In the present book, the author continues his investigations of the mathematical in particular geometrical thought of African cultures and of its possible utility in mathematics teaching in an African context. It concentrates on women's geometrical creations, in part because women students may need extra encouragement in Africa as elsewhere in order to counterbalance the model mathematician normally presented in cosmopolitan mathematics education, but mainly because women are the sophisticated geometers in the cultures that are dealt with in the book:

    32. Female mathematics? they decorate the houses, they weave bags and baskets from coloured straw, they make tattooings and some of them are experts who guide others. () Here as elsewhere, sophisticated mathematics is a specialist's business, as reported in various places in the book. The notion of sophisticated mathematics is justified, even though the specialists in question do not look at themselves as mathematicians, a role for which traditional society has no space; but many of the patterns shown in the book exhibit symmetries that bear witness of intense reflection on formal properties of patterns.

    33. Some projects my current research project ideas for future research

    34. Current research project GenderMathematik: Gender competence as an innovative element of teacher education in mathematics joint project: Anina Mischau (sociology, Bielefeld) Sabine Mehlmann (pedagogics, Gieen) A.B. (mathematics, Hamburg) team members: Torsten Woellmann, Georgine Kalil supported by the German Ministry of Education and Research

    35. Current research project GenderMathematik: Gender competence as an innovative element of teacher education in mathematics main steps: design and development of a seminar Gender Competence in Mathematics for teacher education at universities testing and evaluation of the seminar at eight German universities

    36. Current research project GenderMathematik: Gender competence as an innovative element of teacher education in mathematics contents of the seminar: knowledge on gender: e.g., mathematics as a gendered discipline didactical competence: methods for gender-sensitive teaching of mathematics (self) reflection

    37. Ideas for future research Mathematics as a field of social practice: mathematicians at work mathematics as scientific community with special culture metaphors which practices are part of mathematics and which are not?

    38. Ideas for future research Metaphors: mathematical structures or objects live in certain spaces inherit properties get married

    39. Ideas for future research Mathematics as social practice possible method: laboratory studies: ethnographic studies on scientists at work

    40. Ideas for future research Mathematics as social practice Bettina Heintz: Die Innenwelt der Mathematik, 2000: ethnographic study at the Max-Planck-Institut for Mathematics in Bonn sociology of mathematics gender almost not considered

    41. Ideas for future research Questions that may be gender-related: from a review of Heintz book, by Moritz Epple: Which research topics are considered to be important? Which methods are considered to be promising? Which groups share these views? How does the mathematical community award reputation? How do different areas of mathematics compete for resources and how are such competitions settled?

    42. Thank you for your attention !!