Social Context of HIV/AIDS in Africa Lise Kaalund-Jørgensen March 3, 2009-Gender and sexuality
Literature GENDER • Emily Esplen Women and Girls living with HIV/AIDS: Overview and anotated Bibliography. Bridge (development gender). Institute of Development Studies UK, pp. 1-25, febr 07
Definition og Gender Sex i a dichotomy based on biological differences Gender is the social role of being a girl/woman or boy/man Sex and gender overlap and it may be difficult to separate them totally Men are their masculinities and that is the opposite of women who are their feminity Masculinity is closer to gender as a perception than the term male which is linked to biological sex and the same goes for female etc.
Violence-power-reproduction Virility-masculinity Decission making authority finances, sex. Number of wives Number of children Number of boys Protected sex Family planning
Literatute Sexuality • Linda Tawfik et al. Sex in Geneva, sex in Lilongwe and sex in Balaka. Soc. Scie & Med. 64 pp. 1090-1101, 2007 • F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo et al. Urban-rural differences in the socioeconomic deprivation-sexual behaviour link in Kenya. Soc. Scie med 64 pp. 1019-1031 • Ezekiel Kalipeni et al. Concern and practice among men about HIV/AIDS in low socioeconomic income areas of Lilongwe, Malawi. Soc. Sci & Med. 64, pp. 1116-1127, 2007. • Megan Klein Hattori et al. Cohabitating, marriage, and sexual monogamy in Nairobi slums. Soc. Sci. & Med. 64, 1067-1078, 2007. • Wairagala Wakabi. Condoms still contentious in Uganda’s struggle over AIDS. The Lancet,367, pp. 1387-1388, 2006. • Agnes M. Chimbiri. The condom is an “intruder” in marriage: Evidence from rural Malawi. Soc. Sci & Med. 64, pp. 1102-1115, 2007.
Geneva, Lilongwe and Balaka In Geneva Aids is discussed within an epidemiological model • In North the the reservoirs of infection – Bath boys - by vectors of transmission – by mobile and often air/truck/shipborn men • In South the reservoirs were considered commercial sex workers and the vectors of infection mobile men?
In Lilongwe-Malawi • The Gvmt’s bureaucrats more or less agree with the North interpretation leaving the women vulnerable. • The national strategy/policy is stressing this and focus on vulnerable poor women seeking outside partners • Women ”are denied the discourse of desire
In Balaka – Rural Malawi Other outhors have found in the matrilineal + matrilocal community • Women have passion and power • ”If he dos’nt like it he can take his mat and go” • Complaining of insuficient sex Marriage is perceived as critical to economically and sexually satisfactory life-a mutual assistance in bed as well as board He provides money for necessities and perhaps for luxuries
Why women have extramarital partners • ???”It is a lust to her since her husband is sexless” • ”because the husband is a beer drinker and when he reach home he is just sleeping • The husband is having others... And this it hurtful to the wife- she is worried that he will drop her. So she seeks other men – a way of revenge • Money is very important • Aspiration for a higher standard of living by lust, love and revenge • ???
Conclusions from Balaka • Before initiating teaching of women negotiating the use of condoms it would be relevant to learn if condom use is desireable to women or as undesirable as they are to men • If we knew more of women and mens’ desires and strategies together with ability to control their HIV risk – preventive programmes would improve
Slum in Nairobi and poor people in rural area How poverty influence sexual behaviour by looking into: • Age of sexual debut • Number of sexual partners To identify differences if any between urban/rural poor
Kenya Urban Rural-conclusion • Deprived youth in slum or villages have sexual debut earlier than their better off peers • The are the youngest in the urban slum • Deprived youth in the slum have six time as many partners as in the rural comminity
Concern and practice among men about HIV/AIDS........ in Lilongwe. Ezekiel Kalipeni • To detect how men perceive the risk of HIV • To get a closer view of men’s practice • To discuss why men who are well informed still practice unsafe sex
Sexual Risks taken by people knowing they are HIV+ not using condoms-Togo • We view the world and assess in our minds social phenomena differently • Polarization of love and intimacy to protect from doubt and uncertainty • Social representations theories-representation of test results • Situated rationality theories-wish for children • Social action theory-power and habit