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Chapter 4 Analyzing Software Requirements Learning Objectives Analyze an organization’s: User base, resources, user access, and user productivity Existing software systems and databases Analyze: Corporate culture and software implementation System performance and security issues

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Analyzing Software Requirements

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Analyze an organization’s:
    • User base, resources, user access, and user productivity
    • Existing software systems and databases
  • Analyze:
    • Corporate culture and software implementation
    • System performance and security issues
    • Backup and disaster recovery methods
    • Technical support, user help, and training
evaluating the company user base and resources
Evaluating the Company User Base and Resources
  • Operating systems
  • Workstation operating system upgrades
  • User base
  • User-based network traffic
ms dos
  • Many disadvantages for networking
  • Not designed to take full advantage of the features of a network operating system like Windows 2000 Server and Active Directory
  • Upgrade to a later version of MS-DOS (6.22) for the most connectivity options
windows 3 1 and 3 11
Windows 3.1 and 3.11
  • Windows 3.1
    • Limited networking abilities
  • Windows 3.11 or Windows for Workgroups (WFW)
    • Peer-to-peer communication opens the way for sharing resources
    • Designed to run 16-bit applications
    • Has a 640 KB conventional memory limitation
limitations of windows 3 1 and 3 11
Limitations ofWindows 3.1 and 3.11
  • Cannot search for and view objects in Active Directory
  • Slow; can result in network bottlenecks along with low user productivity
windows 95 and windows 98
Windows 95 and Windows 98
  • Full peer-to-peer and network communication features
  • Greater capacity for folder sharing, printer sharing, network communication, workgroup activities, and other network operations
  • Support TCP/IP, NetBEUI, and NWLink
  • Windows 95 introduces a GUI interface
  • Windows 98 adds more networking capabilities
  • Compatible with newer 32-bit software
microsoft directory service client for windows 95 98
Microsoft Directory Service Client for Windows 95/98
  • Enables these non-Windows 2000 clients to profit from three capabilities:
    • Ability to use Kerberos authentication security
    • Ability to view information published in Windows 2000 Active Directory
    • Enhanced domain logon performance
windows nt workstation
Windows NT Workstation
  • Has all peer-to-peer and network communication advantages ofWindows 95 and Windows 98
  • Same GUI interface as Windows 95/98
  • Runs in a privileged mode to insulate it from “crashes” caused by software applications
windows nt workstation10
Windows NT Workstation
  • Disadvantages
    • Some 16-bit programs have trouble running
    • Early versions that do not have service pack updates may lack some drivers that are needed for printers, NICs, pointing devices, sound devices, etc.
  • Advantages
    • Can act as a small server on a network
    • If users have installed service pack 3 or higher, it supports Dfs and Active Directory access to find network objects
windows 2000 professional
Windows 2000 Professional
  • More networking capabilities than Windows NT Workstation
  • Support for new peripheral devices
  • Full PnP and energy-saving capabilities that are not available in Windows NT
advantages of windows 2000 professional
Advantages of Windows 2000 Professional
  • Written to be fully compatible with Windows 2000 Server and Active Directory services
  • Up to 25% faster than Windows NT Workstation (faster network response)
  • IntelliMirror features help users to be more productive through:
    • Fast installation
    • Automated configuration
    • Versatile data handling
    • Recovery from problem situations
windows millennium edition
Windows Millennium Edition
  • Home entertainment features
  • Better handling of PnP devices
  • Enhancements to support broader networking and Internet connectivity
  • Provides automated setup of home-based networks
  • Targeted for the home computer market
  • Includes built-in DSClient capabilities for access to Active Directory on business and professional networks
  • Can connect to Windows 2000 Server-based networks by using the AppleTalk protocol, or through TCP/IP
  • When AppleTalk is used, Macintosh computers are linked to the network by setting up Windows 2000 Server Services for Macintosh, which includes:
    • File Server for Macintosh (MacFile)
    • Print Server for Macintosh (MacPrint)
    • AppleTalk Protocol
  • All versions have the capability to act as host computers
  • Can access resources on other computers that support the Network File System (NFS) protocol
  • For Windows NT Server
    • Support for UNIX clients involves implementing third-party, disk-sharing software that employs the NFS protocol
  • In Windows 2000 Server
    • UNIX computers are supported by installing the Windows 2000 component for UNIX file and print services
analyzing workstation operating system upgrades
Analyzing Workstation Operating System Upgrades
  • Factors in assessing whether to upgrade
    • How it will benefit the company (new capabilities, increased user productivity, lower TCO)
    • One-time purchase cost
    • Cost in terms of employee hours to perform the upgrade
    • Ongoing support costs
  • Consider how workstation upgrades and rollouts of software are performed, and how upgrades will affect Active Directory design
determining the user base
Determining the User Base
  • Number of users
    • Total number of users
    • Typical number of users who are logged on at any one time
    • Amount of network traffic the users create
  • Operating systems running on those users’ computers
  • Locations of the users
value of determining number of users
Value of Determining Number of Users
  • To help size Active Directory
  • To determine where to locate DCs and global catalog servers
  • To optimize performance by creating sites
using network monitor to study user based network traffic
Using Network Monitor to Study User-based Network Traffic
  • Network Monitor Driver
    • Enables a Microsoft-based server or workstation NIC to gather network performance data for assessment by Microsoft Network Monitor
  • Network Monitor
    • A Windows NT and Windows 2000 network monitoring tool that can capture and display network performance data
    • Useful for gathering benchmarks
network monitor total pane statistics
Network Monitor Total Pane Statistics
  • Network Statistics
  • Captured Statistics
  • Per Second Statistics
  • Network Card (MAC) Statistics
  • Network Card (MAC) Error Statistics
analyzing user access and productivity
Analyzing User Access and Productivity
  • Network Monitor can be used to study low, medium, and high use of resources
  • Value of analyzing user access patterns
    • To determine placement and number of DCs
    • To determine placement and number of global catalog servers
    • To tune access to Active Directory and network resources by implementing subnets and Active Directory site designations
checklist for analyzing user access patterns
Checklist for Analyzing User Access Patterns
  • What types of user access are associated with low, medium, and high monitored network traffic?
  • What user access patterns exist on local networks and across WANs?
  • How is user access affected by branch offices, subsidiaries, and partner relationships?


checklist for analyzing user access patterns35
Checklist for Analyzing User Access Patterns
  • How is user access affected by outsourcing relationships?
  • What productivity needs are associated with user access?
evaluating existing software and software systems
Evaluating Existing Software and Software Systems
  • Accounting software
  • Office software
  • E-mail software
  • Specialized business software
  • Development software
analyzing accounting software
Analyzing Accounting Software
  • Active Directory issues focus on creating security groups and group policies that establish reliable access and security
    • How different modules communicate in an integrated accounting system
    • How program changes and testing are handled
    • Requirements imposed by company’s financial auditors
    • Potential need for special security access for programmers during upgrades
analyzing office software
Analyzing Office Software
  • May need to create and publish shared data folders for users and to offer Dfs
  • May need to set up security groups to limit access to shared folders
  • Design security and shared folders to enable users to install and upgrade software, if needed
analyzing e mail software
Analyzing E-mail Software
  • One system or multiple systems?
  • Used in combination with calendar and scheduling software?
  • Firewalls required?
analyzing specialized business software
Analyzing Specialized Business Software
  • Can include all kinds of software for business functions
    • Inventory
    • Manufacturing
    • Marketing
    • Fundraising
    • Management
    • E-commerce
analyzing development software
Analyzing Development Software
  • Consider creating a separate area – such as a development domain – in which to develop and test programs before they are copied into a production domain for users to access
analyzing databases and data structures
Analyzing Databases and Data Structures
  • Flat file databases
  • Network databases
  • Relational databases
flat file database
Flat File Database
  • Data is stored sequentially in regular files in the same directory on a first-in basis
  • Security is set on files and folders
  • Access to data is slower than for other types of databases
network database
Network Database
  • A flat file database that uses a simple table structure
  • Security is established on files and folders
  • Access to a table can be faster than for regular flat file databases
relational database
Relational Database
  • Data is stored in tables that can be designed with optimized relationships to one another for fast data access
  • Most efficient type of database
  • Several levels of security
  • Access to data and data queries can be very fast
advantages of relational databases
Advantages of Relational Databases
  • Ability to normalize the database
  • One or more views of specific data can be created; data can be accessed without having to search entire database
  • Statistics can be generated for a data query or report to document the fastest route through which to obtain data
open database connectivity odbc
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
  • An application programming interface in Windows-based operating systems and a standard for accessing data inside a relational database
  • How accomplished:
    • Application must be written to use ODBC
    • Must be an ODBC driver that is called by the application and that acts as an intermediary between the application and the database
    • Database must be designed to be ODBC-compliant
importance of analyzing databases and data structures
Importance of Analyzing Databases and Data Structures
  • Many organizations use ODBC to enable report-writing software and make most current ODBC drivers available to authorized users
  • Design of Active Directory OUs and security groups can ensure that database access is restricted to authorized users
  • You can know the user base associated with each database
analyzing existing corporate culture software implementation
Analyzing Existing Corporate Culture & Software Implementation
  • Issues related to corporate culture affect Active Directory design in terms of:
    • Delegation of tasks
    • How security is established
    • Who installs and manages software
  • Learn about the corporate culture as a way to understand how decisions are made, reflecting an organization’s relationship to its software assets
analyzing software system performance issues
Analyzing Software System Performance Issues
  • Direct effect on user productivity on a network
  • Find out what software performance is acceptable in an organization and design Active Directory services to match the need
analyzing software system performance issues53
Analyzing Software System Performance Issues
  • Security for a VPN can be configured through Active Directory by limiting access via:
    • IP address
    • User account
    • Network subnet address
    • Remote access policies
analyzing software security issues
Analyzing Software Security Issues
  • Link the software with users
  • Determine what security should be set up for individual software
  • Analyze who is responsible for assigning the security
analyzing software security59
Analyzing Software Security
  • Security Configuration and Analysis tool
    • A MMC snap-in that helps monitor and analyze security
    • Creates a database from which to configure group policies on a server and perform a security check of specific group policies
analyzing backup and disaster recovery methods
Analyzing Backup and Disaster Recovery Methods
  • Backup
    • Making a copy of software and data so they can be restored in the event of a system failure or accidental data deletion
    • Full backup
    • Incremental backup
  • Disaster recovery plan
    • Creating a plan to continue computer operations after a disaster (fire, floor, earthquake)
windows nt server backup
Windows NT Server Backup
  • Back up the Registry, which contains information about all software and hardware setups on the server
windows 2000 server
Windows 2000 Server
  • Back up system state data and system protected files
windows 2000 server system state data
Windows 2000 Server System State Data
  • System and boot files
  • Active Directory
  • SYSVOL folder
  • Registry
  • COM+ Class Registration information
  • DNS zones
  • Certificate information
  • Server cluster data
windows 2000 server system protected files






Windows 2000 Server System Protected Files
disaster recovery plans
Disaster Recovery Plans
  • Simplest form: have a remote site for storing a copy of certain backups
  • Use Dfs and DCs to go beyond using bank vaults and extra tape sets
backup and disaster recovery plan considerations
Backup and Disaster Recovery Plan Considerations
  • What type of backup methods are used?
  • What type of backup plans are in place for:
    • Registries of Windows NT servers and system state data for Windows 2000 servers?
    • System protected files on Windows 2000 servers?


backup and disaster recovery plan considerations70
Backup and Disaster Recovery Plan Considerations
  • Are backup tape rotation plans and off-site vault storage used?
  • Is Dfs implemented to provide fault tolerance and disaster recovery for important files and software applications?
  • Is there more than one DC per domain; are all the DCs set up in a topology that enables Active Directory replication for fault tolerance and disaster recovery?
analyzing technical support user help and training
Analyzing Technical Support, User Help, and Training
  • Technical support
    • Usually a higher support level for major software problems
    • Extensive privileges usually required
  • User help
    • Direct contact with users on a wide range of problems
    • Special security privileges usually required
  • Training
    • Performed in-house or outsourced
technical support user help and training considerations
Technical Support, User Help, and Training Considerations
  • Who provides technical support to the computer professionals in an organization, and what type of access do they require?
  • Who provides user help functions in the organization, and what access do they need to perform their jobs?
technical support user help and training considerations73
Technical Support, User Help, and Training Considerations
  • How is training provided, and what computer resources are needed for training?
  • What access is needed to enable training?
  • Is training software used, and what resources are needed to make it available to users?
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Evaluating the company user base and resources
  • Analyzing user access and productivity
  • Evaluating existing software and software systems
  • Analyzing databases and data structures
  • Analyzing existing corporate culture and software implementation


chapter summary75
Chapter Summary
  • Analyzing software system performance issues
  • Analyzing software security issues
  • Analyzing backup and disaster recovery methods
  • Analyzing technical support, user help, and training