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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 Analyzing Software Requirements

  2. Learning Objectives • Analyze an organization’s: • User base, resources, user access, and user productivity • Existing software systems and databases • Analyze: • Corporate culture and software implementation • System performance and security issues • Backup and disaster recovery methods • Technical support, user help, and training

  3. Evaluating the Company User Base and Resources • Operating systems • Workstation operating system upgrades • User base • User-based network traffic

  4. MS-DOS • Many disadvantages for networking • Not designed to take full advantage of the features of a network operating system like Windows 2000 Server and Active Directory • Upgrade to a later version of MS-DOS (6.22) for the most connectivity options

  5. Windows 3.1 and 3.11 • Windows 3.1 • Limited networking abilities • Windows 3.11 or Windows for Workgroups (WFW) • Peer-to-peer communication opens the way for sharing resources • Designed to run 16-bit applications • Has a 640 KB conventional memory limitation

  6. Limitations ofWindows 3.1 and 3.11 • Cannot search for and view objects in Active Directory • Slow; can result in network bottlenecks along with low user productivity

  7. Windows 95 and Windows 98 • Full peer-to-peer and network communication features • Greater capacity for folder sharing, printer sharing, network communication, workgroup activities, and other network operations • Support TCP/IP, NetBEUI, and NWLink • Windows 95 introduces a GUI interface • Windows 98 adds more networking capabilities • Compatible with newer 32-bit software

  8. Microsoft Directory Service Client for Windows 95/98 • Enables these non-Windows 2000 clients to profit from three capabilities: • Ability to use Kerberos authentication security • Ability to view information published in Windows 2000 Active Directory • Enhanced domain logon performance

  9. Windows NT Workstation • Has all peer-to-peer and network communication advantages ofWindows 95 and Windows 98 • Same GUI interface as Windows 95/98 • Runs in a privileged mode to insulate it from “crashes” caused by software applications

  10. Windows NT Workstation • Disadvantages • Some 16-bit programs have trouble running • Early versions that do not have service pack updates may lack some drivers that are needed for printers, NICs, pointing devices, sound devices, etc. • Advantages • Can act as a small server on a network • If users have installed service pack 3 or higher, it supports Dfs and Active Directory access to find network objects

  11. Windows 2000 Professional • More networking capabilities than Windows NT Workstation • Support for new peripheral devices • Full PnP and energy-saving capabilities that are not available in Windows NT

  12. Advantages of Windows 2000 Professional • Written to be fully compatible with Windows 2000 Server and Active Directory services • Up to 25% faster than Windows NT Workstation (faster network response) • IntelliMirror features help users to be more productive through: • Fast installation • Automated configuration • Versatile data handling • Recovery from problem situations

  13. Windows Millennium Edition • Home entertainment features • Better handling of PnP devices • Enhancements to support broader networking and Internet connectivity • Provides automated setup of home-based networks • Targeted for the home computer market • Includes built-in DSClient capabilities for access to Active Directory on business and professional networks

  14. Macintosh • Can connect to Windows 2000 Server-based networks by using the AppleTalk protocol, or through TCP/IP • When AppleTalk is used, Macintosh computers are linked to the network by setting up Windows 2000 Server Services for Macintosh, which includes: • File Server for Macintosh (MacFile) • Print Server for Macintosh (MacPrint) • AppleTalk Protocol

  15. UNIX • All versions have the capability to act as host computers • Can access resources on other computers that support the Network File System (NFS) protocol

  16. UNIX • For Windows NT Server • Support for UNIX clients involves implementing third-party, disk-sharing software that employs the NFS protocol • In Windows 2000 Server • UNIX computers are supported by installing the Windows 2000 component for UNIX file and print services

  17. Analyzing Workstation Operating System Upgrades • Factors in assessing whether to upgrade • How it will benefit the company (new capabilities, increased user productivity, lower TCO) • One-time purchase cost • Cost in terms of employee hours to perform the upgrade • Ongoing support costs • Consider how workstation upgrades and rollouts of software are performed, and how upgrades will affect Active Directory design

  18. Determining the User Base • Number of users • Total number of users • Typical number of users who are logged on at any one time • Amount of network traffic the users create • Operating systems running on those users’ computers • Locations of the users

  19. Determining the User Base

  20. Value of Determining Number of Users • To help size Active Directory • To determine where to locate DCs and global catalog servers • To optimize performance by creating sites

  21. Determining the Operating System

  22. Viewing Server Resource Use in Windows NT 4.0

  23. Viewing Server Resource Use in Windows 2000

  24. Using Network Monitor to Study User-based Network Traffic • Network Monitor Driver • Enables a Microsoft-based server or workstation NIC to gather network performance data for assessment by Microsoft Network Monitor • Network Monitor • A Windows NT and Windows 2000 network monitoring tool that can capture and display network performance data • Useful for gathering benchmarks

  25. Installing Network Monitor Driver

  26. Installing Network Monitor

  27. Capturing Data with Network Monitor

  28. Network Monitor Panes

  29. Network Monitor Total Pane Statistics • Network Statistics • Captured Statistics • Per Second Statistics • Network Card (MAC) Statistics • Network Card (MAC) Error Statistics

  30. continued

  31. Network Monitor Total Pane Statistics

  32. Network MonitorStation Pane Statistics

  33. Analyzing User Access and Productivity • Network Monitor can be used to study low, medium, and high use of resources • Value of analyzing user access patterns • To determine placement and number of DCs • To determine placement and number of global catalog servers • To tune access to Active Directory and network resources by implementing subnets and Active Directory site designations

  34. Checklist for Analyzing User Access Patterns • What types of user access are associated with low, medium, and high monitored network traffic? • What user access patterns exist on local networks and across WANs? • How is user access affected by branch offices, subsidiaries, and partner relationships? continued

  35. Checklist for Analyzing User Access Patterns • How is user access affected by outsourcing relationships? • What productivity needs are associated with user access?

  36. Evaluating Existing Software and Software Systems • Accounting software • Office software • E-mail software • Specialized business software • Development software

  37. Analyzing Accounting Software • Active Directory issues focus on creating security groups and group policies that establish reliable access and security • How different modules communicate in an integrated accounting system • How program changes and testing are handled • Requirements imposed by company’s financial auditors • Potential need for special security access for programmers during upgrades

  38. Analyzing Office Software • May need to create and publish shared data folders for users and to offer Dfs • May need to set up security groups to limit access to shared folders • Design security and shared folders to enable users to install and upgrade software, if needed

  39. Analyzing E-mail Software • One system or multiple systems? • Used in combination with calendar and scheduling software? • Firewalls required?

  40. Analyzing Specialized Business Software • Can include all kinds of software for business functions • Inventory • Manufacturing • Marketing • Fundraising • Management • E-commerce

  41. Analyzing Development Software • Consider creating a separate area – such as a development domain – in which to develop and test programs before they are copied into a production domain for users to access

  42. Analyzing Databases and Data Structures • Flat file databases • Network databases • Relational databases

  43. Flat File Database • Data is stored sequentially in regular files in the same directory on a first-in basis • Security is set on files and folders • Access to data is slower than for other types of databases

  44. Network Database • A flat file database that uses a simple table structure • Security is established on files and folders • Access to a table can be faster than for regular flat file databases

  45. Relational Database • Data is stored in tables that can be designed with optimized relationships to one another for fast data access • Most efficient type of database • Several levels of security • Access to data and data queries can be very fast

  46. Advantages of Relational Databases • Ability to normalize the database • One or more views of specific data can be created; data can be accessed without having to search entire database • Statistics can be generated for a data query or report to document the fastest route through which to obtain data

  47. Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) • An application programming interface in Windows-based operating systems and a standard for accessing data inside a relational database • How accomplished: • Application must be written to use ODBC • Must be an ODBC driver that is called by the application and that acts as an intermediary between the application and the database • Database must be designed to be ODBC-compliant

  48. ODBC Drivers

  49. Importance of Analyzing Databases and Data Structures • Many organizations use ODBC to enable report-writing software and make most current ODBC drivers available to authorized users • Design of Active Directory OUs and security groups can ensure that database access is restricted to authorized users • You can know the user base associated with each database

  50. Analyzing Databases and Data Structures