Intro of slavery to the US Colonies. • Slavery was practiced since the beginning of documented history. • Slavery introduced by the Spanish into the West Indies after Columbus’s discovery of America. • Spanish and Portuguese expanded African slavery into Central and South American after enslaved Indians died of disease and mistreatment. • 1619: the first recorded introduction of African slaves into Jamestown • Only 20 slaves were purchased Slaves captured in Africa Slaves aboard ship—Middle Passage
BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERY This is called the Middle Passage
HOW SLAVERY CAME TO THE U.S. Indentured Servants Indentured servants became the first means to meet this need for labor. In return for free passage to Virginia, a laborer worked for four to five years in the fields before being granted freedom. The Crown rewarded planters with 50 acres of land for every inhabitant they brought to the New World. Naturally, the colony began to expand. That expansion was soon challenged by the Native American confederacy formed and named after Powhatan
) Indentured Servitude Institution (1607 - 1700) • Headright System: Plantation owners were given 50 acres for every indentured servant they sponsored to come to America. • Indentured Contract: Served plantation owner for 7 years as a laborer in return for passage to America. • Freedom Dues: Once servant completed his contract, he/she was freed….They were given land, tools, seed and animals. However, they did not receive voting rights.
INDENTURED SERVANT vs. SLAVERY What factors led to the introduction of African slavery replacing indentured servitude as the labor force in the American Colonies?
Bacons Rebellion(1676 - 1677) Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. GovernorWilliam Berkeley of Jamestown
BACON'S REBELLION • Involved former indentured servants • Not accepted in Jamestown • Disenfranchised and unable to receive their land • Gov. Berkeley would not defend settlements from Indian attacks
BACON'S REBELLION • Nathaniel Bacon acts as the representative for rebels • Gov. Berkeley refused to meet their conditions and erupts into a civil war. • Bacon dies, Gov. Berkeley puts down rebellion and several rebels are hung Consequence of Bacon’s RebellionPlantation owners gradually replaced indentured servants with African slaves because it was seen as a better investment in the long term than indentured servitude.
The Wrong Solution • Increased demand for slaves • Less migration from England—wages increasing there • Dependable work force—large landowners disturbed by political demands of small farmers & indentured servants. (wanted control over their workers) • Cheap labor—tobacco prices fell, needed large numbers of unskilled workers for rice & indigo • End of the Royal African Company’s monopoly. • First Africans come to Virginia in 1619 - began to come en masse in 1680s.
Where are these people? What is happening to them? • Who has captured these people? • Why would they capture Africans for the slave trade?
Where were the slaves held on a slave ship? • When a slave ship was built, what was the main goal? • What do you think it was like in the hull of a slave ship? • How did slave traders view African Life?
The Institution of Slavery • Began for economic purposes • Slave laws permanently institutionalized slavery in American society • Some colonies made it a crime to teach slaves to read and write. • 1661, Virginia—Children automatically inherit their mother’s slave status for life. • 1664, Maryland—Baptism does not affect slave status & white women cannot marry black men. • The overall affect: blacks become social inferiors, racism & slavery become an integral part of colonial society • Creation of a racially hierarchical society in the South
Life for Slaves • Most brutal in the deep South • Rice & Indigo / Spread out • Tobacco was less physically demanding • Closer communities and families • Slaves begun to be born in the colonies
WHAT SKILLS DID SLAVES POSSESS? Why would these skills be important during the colonial period?
Transcriptions of Virginia Gazette Runaway Slave Ads • Oct. 10, 1767. Prince George, Sept. 28, 1767. RUN away from the subscriber, the 22d of this instant, three slaves, viz. JUPITER, alias GIBB, a Negro fellow, about 35 years of age, about 6 feet high, knock kneed, flat footed, the right knee bent in more than the left, has several scars on his back from a severe whipping he lately had at Sussex court-house, having been tried there for stirring up the Negroes to an insurrection, being a great Newlight preacher. ROBIN about 25 years of age, a stout fellow, about 6 feet high, has a film over one of his eyes, a sore on one of his shins, and is brother to Gibb. DINAH, an old wench, very large, near 6 feet high; she has a remarkable stump of a thumb, occasioned by a whitlow, by which the bones of the first joint came out and is mother to the two fellows. They carried with them a variety of clothes, among the rest an old blue duffil great coat, one bearskin do. a scarlet jacket, and a fine new linen shirt. It is supposed they will endeavour to make their escape southward. Whoever takes up, and conveys to me the above slave, shall have a reward of 50s. for each of the fellows, and 20s for the wench, if taken in Virginia; if any other government, £5 for each of the fellows, and 40s for the wench paid by George Noble
Transcriptions of Virginia Gazette Runaway Slave Ads • May 2, 1766. Run away from the subscriber, in Mecklenburg county on Wednesday last, a fellow named Jack. It appears he has been principally concerned in promoting the late disorderly meetings among the Negroes, and is gone off for fear of being prosecuted for many robberies he has committed. He is a low squat made fellow, bow-legged, his eyes remarkably red, has been branded on the right cheek R, and on the left M, though not easily to be perceived. It is supposed he intends for Carolina or Georgia. Whoever apprehends the said slave, and will deliver him to me, shall receive 50s. If taken 50 miles from home and 6d [pence] a mile for a greater distance. Robert Munford.
HOW DID THE SLAVE OWNERS TREAT THEIR SLAVES? What attitudes towards slavery did slave owners hold?
HOW DID SLAVES RESIST THEIR MASTERS? • Was this active or passive resistance?
BY WHAT MEANS DID SLAVES ESCAPE AND WHERE WERE THEIR DESTINATIONS? • What does this destination suggest about this enslaved person's final goal?